Sunday, November 24, 2019
Biological, Psychodynamic, Behavioral and Cognitive Approach to Psychology Essays Biological, Psychodynamic, Behavioral and Cognitive Approach to Psychology Essay Biological, Psychodynamic, Behavioral and Cognitive Approach to Psychology Essay Excuse or Explanation? When the news report flashes across the television informing millions around the world of the murder of a family of six, it is obvious that the initiate reaction of the civilians would be terror and hatred. This hatred, a fierce, in-tolerant force behind these people that would instantly choose the worst for whomever the suspect may be. Often, this is the reaction of the people whereas there are a few of those individuals who may decide to view this case differently. These would be psychologists. A psychologist may approach this story with a view inside of the perpetrators mind. Was he biologically, psychodynamicly, behaviorally or cognitively provoked to do such a thing? What would make someone do something horrible and violent like that? Each of the psychologists views provide different aspects and alternate explanations for why this offenders actions occurred, sometimes even explanations to the point of understanding the mind of a criminal. A biological psychologist specifically focuses on the genetics and physiological side of the story. Biology itself refers to the make-up of each individual person, most of the time stemming off from his or her parents, grand-parents or even great-grand-parents. How did they act? What did they do? And why did they do it? It could be in their genes, the way that things are put together inside each individuals mind that illustrates the reason for their actions. Is it possible that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s genes were made up to be completely violent? Could oneÃ¢â¬â¢s father or mother be more responsible for the deaths of these six people than the murderer themselves? A biological psychologist would more than likely answer this question with a definite Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ . A biological point of view examines all thoughts, feelings and behaviors as a product of the chemistry of our brains. A statement might also be that we become ill whether medically or psychologically due to our genetics. This, might bring the biological psychologists conclusion to be that this murder was committed because this culprits father did the same thing, and therefore, it was genetically passed on to his children. The next psychologist, one of whom studies the psychodynamic approach, may say that this was an unconscious deviant behavior that was sought out without intention. Psychodynamicly speaking, one might say that this murder was not something that this person would Ã¢â¬Å"normallyÃ¢â¬ do. Psychodynamics focuses on the underlying parts of the human mind. Repressed incidents or hidden information can often form unwilling urges to come forth into daily actions. For instance, if this murder was completely relaxed and asked to express the thoughts that go through his mind, the psychologist may see the terror that has been concealed for so long. Following, the study of this individual, a psychodynamic psychologist could eventually be able to come to the conclusion that the unconscious painful memories of this murderer was what killed these people, not the offender himself. Another viewpoint would be seeing things from a behavioral approach. Behavioral meaning a controllable aspect of each individuals life, that can be altered and tweaked until it is near perfect. Take for instance a two year old child. From the day it was born to the time of itÃ¢â¬â¢s death, behaviors are taken in from lessons taught to them by those all around. If this child is taught that hitting, screaming and crying are something that gives them attention and provides them with care, this will be what will suffice all of their lives. If one is taught that patience, calmness and quiet is what provides them with love and comfort, this perhaps will be what will project throughout their lives. A behavioral psychologist will say that this murder took place because it is what the murderer was taught to do and what he learned. This psychologist will not focus on what they think or feel, it is simply based on what they do. A behavioral psychologists may even say that this killer could be taught to do differently and that killing is not acceptable. We also have the cognitive psychologists approach. By definition, cognitive means knowing. Therefore, cognitive psychologists try to figure out what is going on in an individuals mind that may lead them to their behavior. Sometimes, scientific equipment is used in order to fully understand the reactions and thoughts that are going on in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Here, a cognitive psychologist may look at this murderer and view his actions as a chemical reaction that went wrong in his or her brain. Also they may see this perpetrators actions as something he or she took in and had to release and the way he or she released it was through the violent act of murder. For example, this suspect may have been harassed and threatened himself and in order to release the fear, he or she committed a terrible crime. Cognitive psychology is completely interested in what people think and from that point, what they choose to or not to do. Being only a few views of psychology there seems to be many explanations for what people do. The reasons they abuse their children or loved ones, why they are alcoholics or in this case why they committed a murder. Often times, in a scenario like this, the psychological views may come across as some sort of excuse to get by a punishment for actions. However, all psychology is able to say, with experiments and procedures previously carried out that there is plenty of back up and explanation of the validity and reliability of their study. Whether it be biological, psychodynamic, behavioral or cognitive approach, psychology will always have a answer.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Competitive Analysis - Essay Example Macintosh products are hip, edgy, associated with quality, and innovative. Smartphones are defined against the IPhone and tablet computing against the IPad. Millions of consumers wait in anticipation for the next Mac release. But there are cracks in their armor. Ã¢â¬Å"The collective Apple community has been so intoxicated by the iPod, the success of the iTunes Store, MacBook sales, and excellent Mac OS X security that no one is reflecting on the areas where Apple is vulnerable. Perhaps it is unpleasant to think about, but neither do we want to live in a state of denialÃ¢â¬ (Martallero, 2006). Mac has traditionally had weaknesses in the arena of high performance computing. They are not associated with gaming computing in any way and they hold a small chunk of the personal computer market. They also don't any foothold in the corporate computer market. This is irrelevant to the Samsung Tab's success, of course. They also have weaknesses in the enterprise market. The music market is a very big weakness: Despite the IPod helping save the music industry from serious problems, they still have a goal, to sell music. Samsung could do what the Zune tried to and failed: Make a serious competitor to Macintosh in the music department by making strategic alliances. It is in the music industry's interest not to have to deal with a monopoly power in the field of MP3s, particularly the ITunes store. That having been said, this does mean competing for a share of a pie that piracy is always in danger of shrinking. The entertainment industry is similar: They want to sell electronic versions of their movies. If Samsung gets in on the ground floor in this regard, they will be successful. Dell's new tablet announcement that got leaked is also a serious threat (Cush, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"The already available Dell Streak and Dell Streak 7 are listed, and according to the leaked "Tablet Roadmap," they will be joined in April by the Gallo Honeycomb tablet. The Opus One and Silver Oak Honey comb tablets will follow in early 2012, just in time for CESÃ¢â¬ (Cush, 2011). Dell has two major advantages. First: They are the big dogs in the field of personal computing. When it comes to building and selling PCs, laptops and notebooks, they are associated with great success. Millions of customers have a Dell PC with an Intel processor: The two are associated with reliability and value. Samsung, on the other hand, is mostly considered to be a maker of TVs, screens, other ancillary products. It seems likely that, faced with the choice between what looks like a Dell computer that just happens to be a tablet or Samsung's new experiment, many people will choose Dell out of sheer brand name recognition. Second: They hit the ground earlier. They launched already. Samsung is a bit late. But the real competition that Samsung has is the PC and other electronic products. The IPad is competing in the tablet market, which is a small market, against people who already are centered on home or laptop computing. If someone has a desktop computer, they are far less likely to think a tablet computer is a worthwhile investment, but might think it's interesting or want mobile computing. If they already have a laptop, the IPad's arguments for existence as a product become far slimmer indeed. Even some video game systems like the DS, PSP, PS3, Wii and XBox 360 are in a real way competition for the Tab. These systems have so many utilities in terms of playing movies, music and doing other
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Report module topic 1-6 international business management - Essay Example However, the MFC is bound to face both tariff and non-tariff barriers by operating on an international scale. Moreover, MFC will experience effects of trade protection as barriers to international trade. These challenges are compounded with the presence of political and legal risks, which affect the business in a number of ways such as business registration, taxation, licensing and reputation of the company. Cultural factors are also an issue in international trade that needs proper integration of people and ideas. In an attempt to help people understand cultural inclinations and influence Geert Hofstede came up with five fold framework of culture that has been discussed in this paper. At the same time, MFC will enjoy benefits of being a member of international trade organizations such as WTO and regional trading blocs and custom unions. Therefore, international trade is in general beneficial to MFC and the company can go worldwide while understanding aspects related to international for strategy formulation and management of business. Table of Contents Title 1 Executive Summary 2 Table of contents 3 1.0. Introduction 4 2.0 International trade 5 2.1. Reasons Why MFC chooses to trade internationally 5 2.2. Major types of international business the MFC will set up in the short-term and long-term 7 2.3. Globalization 8 3.0. ... Types of strategies MFC can use to manage political and legal risks 12 5.0. Culture and cultural frameworks 13 5.1. HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural dimension 13 5.2. Strength and weaknesses of HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework relevant to MFCÃ¢â¬â¢s managers 14 5.3. Ways on how cultural characteristics influence patterns of communication for MFC;s managers in USA and in India 15 5.4. Ways on how MFCÃ¢â¬â¢s managers improve cross-cultural communication international trade organizations 16 6.0. Trade organization (international) 16 Ã 6.1. Ways on how MFC can use the range of international trade organizations 16 6.2. Influence of regional economic groups to MFC 18 7.0. conclusion and recommendations 18 Reference list 19 1.0 Introduction The Magic Fuel Company (MFC) is an Australian public company specializing in the production of fuel additives and other fuel products. Experimentation with fuel and the utilization of additives to make engines run more efficiently has resulted in the producti on of a super concentrated fuel gel which has the potential to reduce all fuel to approximately 20% of current volume and increase the efficient burning of the concentrate by up to 200% of current refined fuel products. This means that each litre of fuel is equivalent to approx 200 ml of gel and fuel usage is reduced to half current usage. Using the fuel gel a car with a 60 litre tank using 10 litres per hundred kilometers of conventional fuel could carry the equivalent of 300 (5*60) litres and travel approximately 3000 kilometers per tank. The gel is the same weight as current fuel, is less volatile and has a longer shelf life. MFC is aware of the potential of the new technology the company has developed to refine crude petroleum and the value of the special additives for the gelling
Monday, November 18, 2019
5 Paragraph - Essay Example All utility things like automobiles, washing machine, refrigerators etc. breaks down when they are most needed. Indeed, the uncanny coincidence of their breakdown forces one to realize that these objects have a mind of their own which they use for optimal impact against man. Things like personal items have innate tendency of getting lost at the eleventh hour! Gloves, pliers, keys of car, house, locker etc. tend to disappear from their normal place when they are needed urgently. Interestingly, they are often found in the places least expected like the long forgotten corner of the wardrobe or under the mattress of unused bed. How and when they get to be there has remained the mystery for all. Most profound is the knowledge of the objects which refuse to perform their duty once they are brought home by their masters. Cigarette lighters, toys, car clocks etc. are major items that only work once and thereafter refuse to show their talent again. This is perhaps the only category of objects that man has been able to demystify and therefore is less likely to get upset with. One can therefore succinctly state that society of inanimate objects has been successful in declaring their hostility against man. Objects of first two categories show that inanimate things are psychologically much advanced and know how to test human patience or indeed, increase their blood pressure to achieve their objective. Man needs to be much more aware of their cunning intentions so that he is equipped with alternatives that would defeat the evil intentions of the inanimate
Friday, November 15, 2019
Effectiveness of Reduced Carbohydrate Intake Introduction/Background The ketogenic diet proposes a reduction of carbohydrate intake, replaced with high fat. Studies convey that low carbohydrate diets promote a higher degree of short term weight loss than conventional low fat diets (Manninen, 2004). Moreover, reductions in fasting blood lipids and insulin concentrations are greater in low carbohydrate diets (Manninen, 2004). Fundamentally, the reduction in carbohydrates renders the body in an efficient metabolic state of dietary ketosis whereby fat is turned into ketone bodies within the liver and burned for energy to utilize in the extra-hepatic tissues. Thereby, short term restriction results in a significant decrease in fat mass and a related increase in lean body mass as fat stores become a primary source of energy (Manninen, 2004). However, low carbohydrate diets may significantly increase fat and cholesterol volume, correspondent with an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Hu et al., 2012). Furthermore, reduction in an accustom ed fibre intake may result in constipation, or fatigue induced by a carbohydrate deficiency from altered hormonal states and electrolyte imbalances (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). Additionally, complications relative to kidney function may arise (eg. osteoporosis and kidney stones) and can be linked to the long term restriction of carbohydrates (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). Ketosis is a common metabolic adaptation in low carbohydrate diets. Glycogen stores are utilized to meet energy demands of the body when dietary carbohydrates are limited; the reserves are exhausted within 24 to 48 hours of carbohydrate restriction (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). However, glycogen is bound to water in a proportion of 1:3g (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). Therefore, the subsequent 1-2kg fat reduction can be attributed to diuresis as opposed to burning adipose body fat stores. Consequently, the decrease is not a true indicator of weight loss as glycogen and water stores will be replenished (ie. rebound water weight will be gained) once the diet is terminated due to an influx of carbohydrates, which retain water in the muscles glycogen stores (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). As depicted in rodent studies, Caton et al. (2009) discerned that the termination of a low carbohydrate diet resulted in weight regain once the habitual diet resumed. Notwithstanding, the diuretic effect is restr ained to the first week of the low carbohydrate diet. Subsequent weight loss is entirely due to the ruminant adaption to energy expenditure and balance. Larosa, Fry, Muesing, Rosing (1980) observed a 7.7 kg loss in participants on the Atkins diet in 8 weeks; 1.8 kg lost per week in the initial two week period, and 0.7 kg per week thereafter. Westman et al. (2002) remarked alike results with a range of 0 to 18.6 kg in body weight reduction over 24 weeks (Figure 1). Once glycogen reserves are exhausted, fat oxidation is increased to satisfy the energy demands unfulfilled by gluconeogenesis and triglyceride breakdown as lean mass is inefficiently broken down to glucose and energy deficits proceed uncovered. A directly proportional increase in muscle fatigue and catabolism (conversion of protein to glucose via gluconeogenesis) transpires when muscle glycogen is depleted, however; an important substrate within ATP production (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). Liberation of fatty acids into the blood are oxidized by the liver for energy expenditure to form acetoacetate and further converted to ÃÅ½Ã ²-Hydroxybutyric acid (ie. ketone bodies) from acetyl CoA, filtered by the kidneys, inducing an increase in renal loss of sodium and consequent water loss. Furthermore, dehydration is common due to the increased water loss associated with ketotic-induced diuresis, onsetting early fatigue in contracting skeletal muscle (Bilsborough Crowe, 2003). The long term restriction of carbohydrates pose an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. LDL cholesterol is an eminent factor in atherogenesis, directly correlated with blood ÃÅ½Ã ²-Hydroxybutyrate (Johnston et al., 2006). Lin Borer (2016) denote a 30% decrease within physiological insulin resistance 24 hours after three low carbohydrate meals, which increase cardiovascular disease mortality. Moreover, metabolic costs may be associated with the utilization of fatty acids as intermediates of the citric acid cycle imperative for energy expenditure are depleted. Russell Taegtmeyer (1991) isolated rodent hearts utilizing acetoacetate as an energy source. The researchers observed a 50% reduction in the contractile ability of the heart within an hour; a contractile failure reversed by pyruvate carboxylation. Indeed, there are benefits and detriments of the dietary regime. However, evidence from clinical and animals trials to achieve a loss in weight and adaptive metabolic risk factors is preliminary. Review of papers Research concerning the effectiveness of reduced carbohydrate intake is limited by small sample sizes and short treatment periods. Westman, Yancy, Edman, Tomlin, Perkins (2002) investigated the effects of a low carbohydrate dietary regime upon body weight and variable metabolic factors in a 6 month trial. 41 overweight (26-33 kg/m^2) yet otherwise healthy volunteers ages 18-65 were assigned to a low carbohydrate diet of A mean decrease in body weight of 9.0 +/- 5.3 kg among 39 volunteers was observed (Figure 1). Weight loss correlated with adherence of the dietary regime and ketonuria (P Statistically significant changes were obtained for various metabolic parameters relative to changes in serum levels (Table 1). Beneficial effects upon serum lipid levels are indicated; 29 volunteers experienced a net reduction in LDL cholesterol over 6 months (Table 2). Moreover, 37 volunteers had an increase in HDL cholesterol (Westman et al., 2002). However, there was no objective measure of physical activity, which is potentially confounding. Moreover, adherence is the largest determinant of a regimes effectiveness. Although group meetings are an objective measure of behaviour adherence, the conceptualization of dietary adherence is disparate, propagated by psychological and socioeconomic determinants. Nonetheless, multiple indicators of adherence to the assigned dietary regime was employed in an attempt to negate the aforementioned issue. Furthermore, all 41 participants developed ketonuria during the trial, strongly correlated with self-reported adherence to the dietary regime. However, it is indispensable to obtain baseline data of macronutrient intake relative to the regime in question to ensure no dietary deficiencies confound the results. Additionally, past dietary intake is principal to document when controlling for baseline, yet macronutrient intake prior to the trial was not assessed. Often, blood/plasma ÃÅ½Ã ²-Hydroxybutyrate levels are the only index of ketosis as exhibited in the study of Westman et al. (2002). However, urinary ketones poorly represent the concentrations of blood/plasma and yield less informative results (Table 2). Acetoacetate and acetone are rarely measured and should be investigated in a low carbohydrate dietary regime; direct manipulation is necessary as the correlational approach cannot provide casual evidence of ketones. Moreover, dietary regime data can be subject to concerns of memory and recall. Additionally, volunteers who completed the dietary records may be more likely to report adhering to the regime. However, macronutrient data was to be recorded within 24 hours of consumption. Also, the usage of skinfold calipers to estimate fat mass poses another limitation. Clasey et al. (1999) discerned that anthropometric estimation yield large mean differences and appreciable inter-individual variability. Volunteers were not recruited according to strict inclusive criteria, therefore the group is particularly inhomogeneous. However, as the participants were healthy, extrapolating the results to individuals with metabolic diseases should be with discretion. Moreover, no substantial losses to follow-up were incurred as a completion rate of 80% was noted. However, the disadvantageous effects regarding volunteers who did not cohere to the program cannot be eradicated; structured programs are more effective at weight loss than self help approaches (Heska et al., 2003). Nevertheless, the findings of Westman et al. (2002) emphasize the imminent need for large scale trials on the compound interplay between low carbohydrate diets and long term aftereffects. The mechanisms and contributing factors underlying the effectiveness of low carbohydrate high fat diets (LC-HFD) remain uncovered. Caton, Yinglong, Burget, Spangler, TschÃ ¶p, Bidlingmaier (2009) examined the effects of a LC-HFD upon body composition and metabolic parameters (eg. growth hormone, IGF-I) in 48 male Wistar rats over a 32 day period. Two studies were conducted. Study one constituted the maintenance of standard laboratory chow (CH) or LC-HFD in adolescent or mature rodents for 16 days prior to a switch in dietary regime (Caton et al., 2009). However, only mature rodents were maintained on the diets for 16 days in study two in an attempt to illuminate the culmination of LC-HFD upon fat pad mass. All rats were pair-fed to ensure the observations would be due to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Metabolic assessments (eg. energy expenditure) were made at baseline and 16 days post-exposure to the first and second diet with indirect calorimetry (Caton et al., 2009). ANOVA was performed to assess feeding efficiency and corresponding body weight changes relative to age and diet. Moreover, an alpha value of 0.05 was rendered in t-test analysis to examine the disparity between body weight and fat pad mass, with Bonferroni to discern any significant differences between the groups (Caton et al., 2009). LC-HFD rodents exhibited a significant reduction in body weight irrespective of age and subsequent diet change (Figure 2). Nonetheless, ingesting CH after initial LC-HFD resulted in weight regain in comparison to CH maintained rodents (Caton et al., 2009). Moreover, mature rats maintained on LC-HFD gained remarkably less body weight than CH (CH 27 +/- 1g; LC-HFD 2 +/- 3g; P LC-HFD may have implications for the alteration of body composition as hormones (eg. GH, IGF-I) known to increase lean body mass diminished within the study; reflective in decreased muscle mass. Declines in IGF-I, lean body mass, and glycogen availability may contribute to the increased fatigue experienced in ketogenic diets. Subsequently, the weight loss procured is not effortlessly sustainable due to an energy imbalance propagating an enhanced drive to regain lost mass. However, rodent studies are not entirely translatable to human subjects, and moreover, not appropriately designed. Perigonadal fat pads have a large surface area and are readily accessible. Consequently, they are frequently utilized in research, as exhibited in the study of Caton et al. (2009). However, humans do not harbour a fat depot analogous to the fat pads; and thereby cannot be truly deemed as visceral. Furthermore, Bazzano et al. (2014) measured body weight and a myriad of biomarkers in 148 participants on variable carbohydrate diets over a year. The researchers concluded that a low carbohydrate diet was more effective for weight loss and reduced cardiovascular risks. Whereas Vogt (2014) published a conflicting paper; a low carbohydrate diet in maternal rodents alters offspring metabolism whereby risk for obesity is pronounced. There are indeed neuroanatomical similarities between humans and rodents which coincide with food intake and energy homeostasis. However, the study un covered that the diet damaged the hypothalamus, pivotal for appetite and energy management. No attempt was made to elucidate the contradiction between the reaction of a rodent versus a human, which is misleading. Additionally, rodent strain can determine the susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic changes. If a more resistant strain is utilized, effects may go unnoticed. Moreover, trials disregard elements of rodent diets (standard laboratory chow; high carbohydrate low fat diet) that have direct metabolic outcomes, such as soy, which has effects akin to estrogen relative to activity, fat storage, and macronutrient and water retention. In contrast, low carbohydrate high fat diets often have sugar as a constituent associated with weight gain and insulin resistance, ultimately selecting for fat sensitivity. It is notable that a sufficient amount of protein is required to maintain lean body mass, yet the diet in the study of Caton et al. (2009) constituted of low protein. Dietary control in rodents is possible to a degree unfeasible in humans. Metabolic attributes of the human condition cannot be entirely recapitulated in a single animal model. Summary opinion/Conclusion A multitude of clinical trials that concern low carbohydrate diets have small sample sizes and insufficient statistical power to detect the incremental changes that occur in metabolic risk factors (Hu et al., 2012). Such factors are important determinants of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; thereby, it is ineffective to derive conclusions upon the effects of low carbohydrates upon overall health long term. In contrast to the results inferring an increase in cardiovascular risk, Hu et al. propose low carbohydrate diets as an alternative approach for fat mass reduction without worsening metabolic risk factors. Moreover, Bueno, de Melo, de Oliveria, da Rocha Ataide (2013) denote a doubled average increase in HDL compared to low fat dieters, conferring cardiovascular benefits with an improved cholesterol profile comparable to Westman et al. (2002) noting an increase in HDL. Nonetheless, six weeks is a short duration of time, and the research conveys that the dietary regime is sl ightly advantageous in weight loss for up to six months (Fields, Ruddy, Wallace, Shah, Millstine, 2016). Potential metabolic consequences can be alleviated with increased water, fibre, and calcium intake. References Bazzano, L. A., Hu, T., Reynolds, K., Yao, L., Bunol, C., Liu, Y., He, J. (2014). Effects of lowÃ -carbohydrate and low-fat diets: A randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 161(5), 309-318. Bilsborough, S. A., Crowe, T. (2003). Low carbohydrate diets: What are the potential short and longÃ term health implications? Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(4), 397-404. Bueno, N., de Melo, I., de Oliveira, S., da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenicÃ diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal Of Nutrition, 110(07), 1178-1187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0007114513000548 Caton, S. J., Yinglong, B., Burget, L., Spangler, L. J., TschÃ ¶p, M. H., Bidlingmaier, M. (2009). LowÃ carbohydrate high fat diets: Regulation of energy balance and body weight regain in rats.Ã Obesity, 17(2), 283-289. Clasey, J. L., Kanaley, J. A., Wideman, L., Heymsfield, S. B., Teates, C. D., Gutgesell, M. E., Ã Weltman, A. (1999). Validity of methods of body composition assessment in young and olderÃ men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(5), 1728-1738. Fields, H., Ruddy, B., Wallace, M., Shah, A., Millstine, D. (2016). Are low-carbohydrate diets safeÃ and effective? The Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association, 116(12), 788.Ã http://dx.doi.org/10.7556/jaoa.2016.154 Heshka, S., Anderson, J., Atkinson, R., Greenway, F., Hill, J., Phinney, S. et al. (2003). Weight lossÃ with self-help compared with a structured commercial program. JAMA, 289(14), 1792.Ã http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.14.1792 Hu, T., Mills, K., Yao, L., Demanelis, K., Eloustaz, M., Yancy, W. et al. (2012). Effects of low-Ã carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: A meta-analysis ofÃ randomized controlled clinical trials. American Journal Of Epidemiology, 176(suppl 7), S44-Ã S54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws264Ã Johnston, C. S., Tjonn, S. L., Swan, P. D., White, A., Hutchins, H., Sears, B. (2006). Ketogenic low-Ã carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets. TheÃ American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(5), 1055-1061.Ã Larosa, J. C., Fry, A. G., Muesing, R., Rosing, D. R. (1980). Effects of high-protein, low-Ã carbohydrate dieting on plasma lipoproteins and body weight. Journal of the American DieteticÃ Association, 77(3), 264-270.Ã Lin, P. J., Borer, K. T. (2016). Third exposure to a reduced carbohydrate meal lowers eveningÃ postprandial insulin and GIP responses and HOMA-IR estimate of insulin resistance. PloSÃ one, 11(10), e0165378.Ã Manninen, A. (2004). Metabolic effects of the very-low-carbohydrate diets: MisunderstoodÃ villains of human metabolism. Journal Of The International Society Of Sports Nutrition,Ã 1(2), 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-7Ã Russell 3rd, R. R., Taegtmeyer, H. (1991). Pyruvate carboxylation prevents the decline in contractileÃ function of rat hearts oxidizing acetoacetate. American Journal of Physiology-Heart andÃ Circulatory Physiology, 261(6), H1756-H1762.Ã Vogt, M. C., Paeger, L., Hess, S., Steculorum, S. M., Awazawa, M., Hampel, B., Predel, R. (2014).Ã Neonatal insulin action impairs hypothalamic neurocircuit formation in response to maternalÃ high-fat feeding. Cell, 156(3), 495-509.Ã Westman, E. C., Yancy, W. S., Edman, J. S., Tomlin, K. F., Perkins, C. E. (2002). Effect of 6-monthÃ adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. The American Journal of Medicine, 113(1),Ã 30-36. Table 1 Effect of a low carbohydrate dietary regime upon metabolic parameters Table 2 Effect of a low carbohydrate dietary regime upon serum lipid level and 24-hour urinary excretion Table 3 End-point hormone, glucose, and albumin analysis (study one; mean +/- s.e.m.) in adolescent and mature rodents maintained on CH or LC-HFD for 16 days Table 4 Energy expenditure (kcal/24 h) normalized for body mass at baseline; 16 days post-maintenance of CH and LC-HFD Figure 1. The effect of a low carbohydrate diet with additional nutritional supplementation upon body weight (n=41). Fat mass was estimated from skinfold thickness measurement. Fat mass decreased from 36.9 +/- 6.2 kg to 3.0 +/- 5.7 kg. Fat-free mass = body weight fat mass. The asterisk indicates P Figure 2. The development in body weight (g) of adolescent and mature rodents initially maintained on standard laboratory chow (CH) or low carbohydrate high fat diet (LC-HFD) for 16 days prior to a switch in dietary regime (denoted by an arrow) for another 16 days (means +/- s.e.m.). LC-HFD rodents exhibited a significant reduction in body weight compared to CH irrespective of age and subsequent diet change.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The roots of the financial crisis can be traced back to the property asset bubble in the US between 1997 and 2006. This asset bubble was enabled by a poorly regulated subprime mortgage industry and the assumption that property prices would continue to rise. The collapse of the property bubble and subsequent foreclosures led to many financial institutions suffering huge losses due to their exposure to the subprime market through a series of innovative and complex investment vehicles. While these investments carried extra risk, they also gave the opportunity for massive short term returns, and the move to these riskier and more complicated financial investments may have been facilitated by a Ã¢â¬Ëtoo big to failÃ¢â¬â¢ mentality by many US financial institutions. The collapse of the property bubble and uncertainty in the markets led to a run by depositors and a sudden loss of funding for banks day to day activities. Due to the dependence of the interbank lending market for short term funding, these banks were unable to fund their day to day operations and some collapses, (Lehman Brothers) while others were bailed out by the US government (AIG). Such a loss of confidence within the financial industry eventually led to banks operating a more cautious approach to lending and ensured a severe reduction in the availability of credit, both to other banks and consumers. I will look at the how subprime lending, assisted by expansionary macroeconomic policies and lenient regulatory supervision, eventually morphed into a full financial crisis rather than the view that such crises are cyclical in open market economies and are part of the boom and bust characteristics of capitalism. Sub-prime Mortgages and the Building Blocks of the Financial Crisis .. ...pubs/ft/fandd/2008/06/dodd.htm Carmassi, J, Gros, P and Micossi, S. The Global Financial Crisis: Causes and Cures. Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol.47, No.5, pp. 977-996, 2009. Available at: http://www.relooney.info/SI_FAO-Asia/Global-Crisis_23.pdf Blakenburg, S and Palma, J.G. Introduction: the global financial crisis. Cambridge Journal of Economics. Vol.33, pp.531-539, 2009. Available at: http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/531.full.pdf+html Online Publications Inman, P. Easy money hits home with lenders facing Ã £250bn losses. The Guardian Online, July 10th, 2007. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jul/10/usnews.internationalnews1?INTCMP=SRCH Baldwin, R. Excessive risk-taking by Banks. Wall Street Pit. Global Market Insight, April 9th, 2012. Available at: http://wallstreetpit.com/90959-excessive-risk-taking-by-banks
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Joey Hildreth Dr. Weston Composition 1 September 12, 2012 A Change of Plans Making a plan to do something is a normal occurrence in human life. People make plans to go see a movie, to go out to dinner, and to hang out with their friends all on a regular basis. Sometimes life can send unexpected events that can change those plans. I am sure this has happened to everyone at least once where things didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go exactly the way they had planned. To this day I would consider myself a good driver; however, I recall a driving experience where things did not go quite the way I had planned.I had made plans to go to Cedar Point with a friend, and we were going to meet up with someone we had met the last time we were at Cedar Point. My friend and I had both bought season passes in early June. It was the first summer that I had a car and we figured we could drive to Cedar Point once a month until it closed for the year. We had gone once with my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s family in late June, and anothe r time with my parents in late July. In early August we decided that we needed to make another trip up before school started and we would have a schedule to work around.Since there had been no more family trips planned, we were determined to make the drive by ourselves. I must have begged my mom to let me drive without parental supervision at least a thousand times. Only after I had promised her I would be careful, responsible, and follow the speed limit that she even considered it. After that it took many more pleads before she finally gave in. I still remember our conversation when she finally told me we would be allowed to make the trip. Ã¢â¬Å"Fine, but if you want to go you need to have Taylor text me every half hour so I know that you guys are still alright, and you have to call me as soon as you get there.While youÃ¢â¬â¢re at Cedar Point, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll text me every 2 hours to check in,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"Alright Mom,Ã¢â¬ I replied as I hid excitement piling up insi de me. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not finished yet,Ã¢â¬ she said and paused for me to pay attention Ã¢â¬Å"and you will leave no later than nine OÃ¢â¬â¢clock. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t call or text, you better believe after you get home you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a car either. Ã¢â¬ Saturday morning I left my house and headed over to TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s to pick him up. It was no surprise to me that I had to wait for him to finish getting ready when I arrived.After the usual groans of Ã¢â¬Å"Come onÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a guy, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need make-up, letÃ¢â¬â¢s goÃ¢â¬ we were finally ready to leave. We loaded our things into the car and got ready to take off. I popped in a CD I had burned that consisted of songs I knew well. I pulled out the driveway and drove off down the road; both windows down and the stereo blaring. We were nearing the halfway point when life decided to throw in an unexpected event. I was driving down a country road going 55 when I saw a groundhog crossing the street. He was near the middle of the road when I saw him and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to do.This was no ordinary groundhog, this groundhog was the sizeHe started to run towards the left side of the road, and then he turned around and darted back to my side. I slammed the brakes and swerved to the right. Just before my tires hit the gravel on the side of the road, I felt a slight a bump and heard a deep thud. As I realized I was going to go off-road I quickly turned the wheel to the left to try to correct myself. When I did this, my car fishtailed and threw itself into the ditch. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my god! Are you alright Tay? Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, yeah,Ã¢â¬ he responded with wide eyes.We both got out of the car to see what the damage was. At first everything seemed fine other than a small crack in my front bumper; until Tay pointed out that I had a flat tire. I called my mom to tell her what happened, and she was not a happy camper. I did not have a spare tire so she told me t hat she would call the American Automobile Association (AAA). Shortly after she called me back and said a tow truck was on the way. Once he arrived he loaded the car onto the tow truck, and I had quite the story to tell him about how life had thrown a change of plans to me.
Friday, November 8, 2019
After I found out that my husband may have prostate cancer I researched, read and learned everything I could about this disease. Then I informed my husband of my findings, because for some reason, but not unlike other men, he could not do it himself. He was very willing to read any pages I marked in a book, or downloaded offline. With the biopsy and diagnosis I cried alone in the dark or in the shower so he wouldn't hear. I acted upbeat and positive whenever he was around. I understood the power of positive thinking, and did not want him to succumb to any negative thoughts. He never cried a tear in front of me, and always acted like he was there to comfort and support me through this time. We both at least acted like we were the strong one. I knew inside he was the stronger one. He always seemed to have a positive attitude. To this day, I don't know exactly what he was feeling during that time. With the CAT scan and bone scan, I fought hard not to be sick. I was present in the room during the bone scan and I watched on the monitor. As he lay there with the machine inching it's way over him, he looked so vulnerable for the first time. I had never seen him sick, or even in pain. It was a reality check for me at that moment. Everything came crashing in. I strained to see what they might be looking for. Could I see anything? What was I even looking for. I didn't know, but I tried anyway. I could see a large glow around the pelvic area. My stomach did a flip flop...I felt myself getting tense. I could hardly stand one more minute of looking at his skeletal structure as the pictures came up on the screen. The tech told him to empty his bladder because the glow was the nuclear material in the bladder. By that moment, I had to leave. I thought I was going to vomit. I put some water on my face, and when I came out of the ladies room, he was there waiting ... Free Essays on Embarassing Moment Free Essays on Embarassing Moment After I found out that my husband may have prostate cancer I researched, read and learned everything I could about this disease. Then I informed my husband of my findings, because for some reason, but not unlike other men, he could not do it himself. He was very willing to read any pages I marked in a book, or downloaded offline. With the biopsy and diagnosis I cried alone in the dark or in the shower so he wouldn't hear. I acted upbeat and positive whenever he was around. I understood the power of positive thinking, and did not want him to succumb to any negative thoughts. He never cried a tear in front of me, and always acted like he was there to comfort and support me through this time. We both at least acted like we were the strong one. I knew inside he was the stronger one. He always seemed to have a positive attitude. To this day, I don't know exactly what he was feeling during that time. With the CAT scan and bone scan, I fought hard not to be sick. I was present in the room during the bone scan and I watched on the monitor. As he lay there with the machine inching it's way over him, he looked so vulnerable for the first time. I had never seen him sick, or even in pain. It was a reality check for me at that moment. Everything came crashing in. I strained to see what they might be looking for. Could I see anything? What was I even looking for. I didn't know, but I tried anyway. I could see a large glow around the pelvic area. My stomach did a flip flop...I felt myself getting tense. I could hardly stand one more minute of looking at his skeletal structure as the pictures came up on the screen. The tech told him to empty his bladder because the glow was the nuclear material in the bladder. By that moment, I had to leave. I thought I was going to vomit. I put some water on my face, and when I came out of the ladies room, he was there waiting ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The History of the Dead Sea Scrolls Known to be the most important archeological discovery of the twentieth century, the Dead Sea Scrolls have not only become a window through which we can explore ancient civilization, but most importantly, a foundational source we can use to see a glimpse of an ancient religious people. Composed of over 800 manuscripts, the Dead Sea Scrolls, when discovered, astonished all and brought a panic among many. Possibly threatening both the Jewish and Christian fundaments, the scrolls had scholars hoping to find answers to questions left unreciprocated since the days of Moses. The following takes readers on a journey exploring how the scrolls came to be, how they were discovered, and most crucially, what they contain. After the destruction of the first Temple and the rebuilding of the second, the Jews of Judea still deemed the holy place as their center of devotion. Because the Romans had now conquered Judea, many priests felt the Greek way of life, known as Hellenism, had empowered the Jewish way of life. A group of priests known as the Essenes, meaning the Ã¢â¬Å"purified onesÃ¢â¬ fled to the scorching days of the desert around 150BCE. As they pondered through the hot sun, tired and confused they brought with them writings and rituals of what they believed would one day open the way to a renewal of Israel, and a planning of a new and uncorrupted temple. The Essenes settled on a plateau in the desert where cliffs lied to the west and the Dead Sea to the east. As they built the community and village, which are now known as Qumran, they fabricated extraordinary architectural designs, including water canals through the village in which they would submerge themselves for Ã¢â¬Å"cleansingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"purifyingÃ¢â¬ purposes. The Essenes lived a very, very strict way of life, with numerous daily prayers being the focus of their existence. They studied vigorously the teachings and writings of the Hebrew Bible... Free Essays on The Dead Sea Scrolls Free Essays on The Dead Sea Scrolls The History of the Dead Sea Scrolls Known to be the most important archeological discovery of the twentieth century, the Dead Sea Scrolls have not only become a window through which we can explore ancient civilization, but most importantly, a foundational source we can use to see a glimpse of an ancient religious people. Composed of over 800 manuscripts, the Dead Sea Scrolls, when discovered, astonished all and brought a panic among many. Possibly threatening both the Jewish and Christian fundaments, the scrolls had scholars hoping to find answers to questions left unreciprocated since the days of Moses. The following takes readers on a journey exploring how the scrolls came to be, how they were discovered, and most crucially, what they contain. After the destruction of the first Temple and the rebuilding of the second, the Jews of Judea still deemed the holy place as their center of devotion. Because the Romans had now conquered Judea, many priests felt the Greek way of life, known as Hellenism, had empowered the Jewish way of life. A group of priests known as the Essenes, meaning the Ã¢â¬Å"purified onesÃ¢â¬ fled to the scorching days of the desert around 150BCE. As they pondered through the hot sun, tired and confused they brought with them writings and rituals of what they believed would one day open the way to a renewal of Israel, and a planning of a new and uncorrupted temple. The Essenes settled on a plateau in the desert where cliffs lied to the west and the Dead Sea to the east. As they built the community and village, which are now known as Qumran, they fabricated extraordinary architectural designs, including water canals through the village in which they would submerge themselves for Ã¢â¬Å"cleansingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"purifyingÃ¢â¬ purposes. The Essenes lived a very, very strict way of life, with numerous daily prayers being the focus of their existence. They studied vigorously the teachings and writings of the Hebrew Bible...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Code of Ethics - Research Paper Example This report stresses that discipline is one of the best ways for creating ethical climate within the organization. In case of PAC Resources, this can be observed that the organization considered unconfirmed sales figures in their accounting procedure. It is a completely non ethical procedure for keeping accounts related records. So a disciplinary accounting procedure is required in this regard. Here the organization should take those sales figures which are confirmed by nature and purchase orders of those sales transactions and signed by the concerned end. Management can take strong step in case of ethical violation in case of accounting procedure. This essay makes a conclusion that communication process should be more effective than the earlier days. There should not be any type of communication gap between and employer and an employee. If employees feel free for asking questions to the HR managers then problems can be solved in easier way. Apart from that managers should observe the unethical behavior of employees and identify the reasons behind it. Conducting proper training and developmental program will be helpful in this case. Again if employees can get reward and benefit for their honesty and efficiency then also unethical behavior can be reduced by the end of management. HR managers should act with integrity for the prospect of business. They should at first anticipate the level of expectation of the different related parties from the end of organization and according to that expectation code of ethics should be designed and framed.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Language acquisition by a bilingual child - Essay Example Of concern to this paper is vocabulary acquisition in bilingual children and the impact that various factors have in determining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s proficiency in their two languages. While little research exists in this area, a few researchers have since conducted research and came up with interesting results on the role these factors play in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development. It is also very important to compare the bilingual children with those from the monolingual families to see the extent of vocabulary acquisition of the two, though researches have since indicated that the language scores in bilingual children are lower than the scores of those from monolingual homes (Altarriba & Heredia, 2011, p.170). This calls for more studies so as to know the exact factors that contribute to this difference. In their article, Quiroz et al., (2010) summarise their study findings on the impacts of a mother on the learning outcomes of their children, as regards to mastering the vocabularies of the different languages. The study was conducted mainly to examine the various home factors affecting language acquisition of children of 4-5 years old, in bilingual families. Another question of this research involved the impact of the mother-child book sharing activity in bilingual families, and how it compares with that of the monolingual families. Since this study used Latin American kids from families who also used English as their other langiage, it also endeavoured to find out whether the Spanish vocabulary input also impacted the English vocabulary outcomes. The participants of this study were 250 Spanish-Speaking children. Family samples were from three communities living in Maryland and Massachusetts. A comparison sample comprised 150 children drawn from families living in Puerto Rico. The researchers made sure that the children participated came from families where at least Spanish was one of the languages spoken in the