Saturday, August 31, 2019
INDIVIDUAL ESSAY Essay Title: Cultural tourism festivals and events in Nigeria Name: Deborah Vincentsdaughter TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents INTRODUCTION3 Cultural tourism3 LITERATURE REVIEW4 Festivals and events4 Cultural festivals in Nigeria5 Festivals and impacts6 Igue festival6 New yam Festival (Iri ji Ohuru/iwa ji7 Gbagyi Gbodogun8 CRITICAL ANALYSIS11 CONCLUSION11 REFERENCES12 INTRODUCTION Tourism generally has to do a lot with social activities. A typical example is the adventure tourism which is a type of tourism that provides an opportunity for people to challenge nature and everything about it.This type of tourism provides opportunities for activities such as: Hand gliding and Para sailing which are grouped under hard adventure; while hot sports and wild life are grouped under soft adventure. The chambers dictionary has defined tourism as the events of tourists and those who make it available for them. Tourism as defined in a book says that it is the study of how good human bein gs can cope when they are away from their normal habitats, of the industry that meet his needs and lastly of the impacts that both he and the industry have on the hostÃ¢â¬â¢s in such ways; sociocultural, economic and physical environments. Jafari 1977) Getting information from another book about tourism, differences in the definitions of tourism could be traced to the following approaches; Economic, technical and holistic. 1. Economic definitions emphasizes on the business area of tourism, but if it were to be criticized by leiper(1979) that it fails to even discuss about the tourist and his motivations or limitations in travelling. 2. Technical approach to the definition of tourism aims at mainly the governments and the tourism industry organizations that want to monitor the size and other important issues about tourists markets. . In 1942 holistic type defined tourism as Ã¢â¬Å"the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so fa r as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t lead to permanent residence are not connected to any earning activity. Cultural tourism Cultural tourism is a part of tourism. This part of tourism is an activity in which a particular group of people in a definite area present their heritage or cultural assets for tourists to see and appreaciate.The UNWTO(united nations world tourism organization) produced two definitions based on two approaches which are; * The narrow definition-derived from the professional, product-based approach to defining cultural tourism. This definition includes Ã¢â¬Ëmovement of persons for basically cultural motivations such as; study tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals and so many other cultural events, visits to sites, travel to study nature, folklore and pilgrimages(Richards 1996:22) * The wide definition-is based on conceptual, process-based approach.Has to do with the migration of persons because they satisfy the human need for diversity, tending to rai se the cultural level of the individual and giving rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters(Richards 1996:22) Cultural tourism involves four elements according to my research and they are as follows; * Tourism * Use of cultural heritage assets * Consumption of experiences and products * The tourist(cultural tourists) According to ICOMOS (International council on monuments and sites) observed that Ã¢â¬Å"cultural tourism means many things to many people and herein itÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknessesÃ¢â¬ .This part of tourism is also known as a form of special tourism where culture plays the role of either attracting tourists or motivating people to travel (McIntosh and Goeldner 1992: Zeppel 1992; Ap 1992). LITERATURE REVIEW Festivals and events In this section, festivals and events in Nigeria will be discussed fully and their impacts analysed. It will be wise to discuss what festivals are all about first before going on to other things.Festivals are an important expression of human activity that contribute much to our social and cultural life and that they are also increasingly linked to generating business activity and providing income for their host communities(Ellen et all 2002). In some cases festivals are not observed with the motive of attracting tourists, their nature,destination,range of performers and productions in one place over a short period of time ,commonly in the summer months, encourages viewers(people) far and near/all over to come. They can take many forms, eg. music-rock, pop, jazz and folk types of music.There are also wine and cultural festivals. EVENTS INDUSTRY-this is an industry where festivals are grouped under. Cultural festivals in Nigeria Nigeria has so many festivals that have been in existence since the time of our ancestors, until the arrival of different religions as we have today but still yet festivals are taken as important occasion. Local festivals in Nigeria have a lot to do with different events such as; harvest festivals, betrothal festivals, crowning of a new chief and funerals. Today the western world and system has influenced our local festivals eg. ances that were performed by members of each village have now been transferred unknowingly to proffesionals. This country is rich in divers festivals which includes; * Egungun festival celebrated in Ijebu ode town of ogun state in May. * Odum festival celebrated by the ijaws of okirika in Benue state. Normally done in the month of April. * Barakau normally celebrated with animal sacrifices by the Fika people of Potiskun in yobe state. Done in July. * Nduku festival is known to be celebrated by the people of Ogume in Ndokwa local government area of Delta state. It is a November festival. * Igue estival this one is celebrated by the benis of Edo state in the month December. * New yam festival is done generally by the IboÃ¢â¬â¢s in Nigeria in the month of August. * Gbagyi gbodogun takes place in Gadabuke village and celebrated by the agadabu keyiÃ¢â¬â¢s (natives of the village) in toto local government area in Nasarawa state. Often observed at the end of the year November/December. * Oro festival is a tradional annual Yoruba event usually observed in the month of July. Among all these festivals listed out and summarized briefly, only three of them will be discussed and their impact as well in the next section.The local festivals are; 1. The Igue festival 2. New yam festival(Iri ji ohuru/iwa ji) 3. Gbagyi Gbodogun Festivals and impacts Igue festival; is the one am going to be discussing about first. It is done in the ancient city of the Benin kingdom, Benin located in Edo state in the southern part of Nigeria and takes place in the month of December. It marks the anniversary of the death of the past obas in Bini Kingdom. Igue festival usually goes on for seven days, and then on the seventh day, the conclusion is now celebrated. Sacrifices and offerings are made to the gods, songs are also sung along during the period.T he sacrifices offered are primarily used to cleanse the land, so that it becomes clean enough for the gods to be appealed. The people involved are the oba (king) of the Benin kingdom, his chiefs, subjects and the Benis of Benin, Edo state. In the past, their practices used to be sacrificing human beings for cleansing of the land to the gods until the present Oba Erediauwa came into power and stopped it. Presently such things donÃ¢â¬â¢t take place in the festival again, though sacrifices are being made, humans are no longer sacrificed, rather with animals for example goat.Apart from these, the Benis practice so many other things while celebrating the Igue festival which includes; the chiefs dressing in their finest traditional attires, joining the oba in songs and dances, by name Ugie Ewere. They do this with the Eben Emblem. Masquerades also perform the local dances to entertain the audience. While the festival is still on, all the Ihogbe presents symbolic Ewere leaves to the Oba. As the festival is celebrated yearly, the Oba celebrates Ugie Ewere (the anniversary of his marriage to Ewere some years back).The Bini people also use the festival as an opportunity for offering thanks to the gods for sparing their lives and request for more blessings. Public holidays are always given, and people are told not to move for that period of time. Impacts of igue festival The igue festival leaves its impacts in the lives of the Benin Edo people in these ways; * Economically; there are more activities in the area. For example a lot of people engage themselves in buying and selling in preparation of the event. * Socially; the festival creates a good publicity and image for the area. Eg. he people who come for the festival may want to re-visit the place, not just for a particular reason but to have a feeling of the environment. * Geographically; as people come from other tribes to witness the event, it gives the community an opportunity to be developed and supports environ mental enhancement. New yam Festival (Iri ji Ohuru/iwa ji); to eat a new yam/to break a new yam, that is what the words written in another language called Ibo means. Most times it depends on the village, but it is normally celebrated in the market place, where the god of the community/village is kept.The Iwa ji festival (new yam festival) is celebrated in the month of August. This festival, is all about celebrating a new yam(which is one of the most important food and first crop to be harvested in the eastern region) Old yams are brought out and discarded/consumed and the breaking of the new yam follows, it is usually done by the Igwe(king) or the chief priest depending on the destination, The people involved are the members of the village, chiefs or elders of the village, chief priest and the Igwe.In order for the festival to be a successful one, so many practices are involved which includes; sacrifices are made to the gods, to appease and thank them for fruitfulness, before the fe stival begins this is usually done by the chief priest(it is believed that their positions bestows the privilege of being intermediaries between the gods and their community),they come with the biggest sized yam for the festival, because it shows the amount of abundant fruitfulness including dishes served.Old yams are discarded or consumed in order to pave way for the new ones, Masquerades are invited to perform and entertain people, traditional gunshots announces the opening of the ceremony at times, children are being cleansed with rituals (ima cha ahu-to clean the body) because they belief that before a person takes in anything new, it is important to cleanse the body. This belief is popular among the Easterners. Most times the yam dishes are shared between friends and well-wishers in order to enjoy and celebrate with them.Sons and daughters of the Ibo community come back home from wherever they are in the world. Late Dim chukwuebuka Odumegwu Ojukwu described the events as Ã¢â¬Å "the most igbo of Igbo eventsÃ¢â¬ , because it clearly shows the culture of the Ibos. Impacts of the new yam festival This festival impacts on lives of the locals of the eastern region in Nigeria, and they are; Positive impacts * Culturally; it strengthens the bond of the Igbos (the relationship). it reminds people of how love and unity existed and reigned among them before the civil war in the east. Socially; so many people feel happy during and after the event, because it brings their loved ones (sons and daughters) from far and near. For example Grandparents will be happy to see their children and grandchildren. * Economically; it yields the locals so much money, after they are done buying and selling. A good example for this is-people who were present at the occasion taste the yam, and would want to buy more maybe to take home or for many other reasons. Negative impacts * Culturally; sometimes people are being used for sacrifices to the gods all in the name of tradition or pre serving the culture.In addition, so many individuals get initiated into cults or fraternities which they never planned for. These initiations could be traced to the cleansing and sacrifices to the gods. Also People are being initiated into so many things. This happens because of the cleansing, sacrifices and others not mentioned. Gbagyi Gbodogun;the event takes place in northern part of Nigeria. it is being observed by the agadabukeyiÃ¢â¬â¢s or the Gwari people of Gadabuke village in toto local government area,in Nasarawa state. It is celebrated annually at he end of the year November/December. The festival is all about cultural values and tradition all showcasing with little sacrifices because religion has dominated tradition today. It helps to make the young ones get to know more about their customs and traditions. The people involved are the king, chiefs, governors, advocates and the villagers. Traditional dances, masquerades also display-the dance called Dawiya(the native name ),their local or cultural food is being displayed and served as well by name Zhepo.Martial arts, like the traditional martial arts are being done also,magics such as; pounding a tuber of yam on a person, and it is not painful(odi e shi-which means it is not painful in a language called Igbo),cutting an individual with a very sharp knife and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt, eating razor blade and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cut the persons mouth, pouring water into a basket and it does not lick. They normally drink palm wine, and the local food Zhepo with something to go with it. for example, garden egg soup and ponded yam.Ceremonial cleansing is being done also before the festival, traditional wears are being worn and they are called Ajesinda. This is the local food called Zhepo The Zhepo and garden egg soup mixed together Impacts of Gbagyi gbodogun Positive impacts The festival effects the locals in so many ways, a few of them are; * Socially; it is exciting for example when people watch the masquera des dance and the magicians act, it is pleasing to the eye and heart at times. Fun; people get to enjoy themselves while celebrating the festival. eg. he people acting as masquerades find it interesting scaring people (when they run, because of fear), the traditional dancers also have fun while performing at the festival. * Culturally; it awakens the gbagyi people about their culture for them to remember, to preserve, conserve and leave the culture Authentic just the way it has always been from the first days, if not because of science and technology or the 21st century age that came in and has really impacted into it. Negative impacts * Socially; the festival reunites the Gwari people. For example Gbagyi eople come together from far and near to celebrate, and through this, people get to meet new individuals. * Culturally; youths try stupid things. Eg. they go home and practice what they have seen the magicians do at the festival just to know if it true or not. At times they aspire to be magicians and have magical powers to do whatever they wished to do. CRITICAL ANALYSIS A. Is it fair for human beings to be killed all in the name of preserving culture? For example in the Igue festival human beings were being sacrificed to appease the gods.I personally believe that, no human being should be killed except the person has committed any crime punishable according to law and order. B. Can a festival be authentic, even after the foreign touristÃ¢â¬â¢s impacts on them? Most at times, when foreigners grace these local events, they tend to introduce the western system to the locals who accept it and put it into practice. It takes a person who is properly educated and learned to know how to preserve their culture despite the influence of the foreign tourists. CONCLUSIONIn a nutshell, Even if Nigeria is rich in cultural festivals, there are some practices that are not supposed to be sustained anymore and there are some that are meant to be preserved and maintained. For example, sacrificing of human beings. On the other hand, it is good for foreign tourists to come for the events and educate the locals more about festivals, but the locals also need to be educated on how to preserve their culture. REFERENCES http://emeagwali. com/nigeria/cuisine/igbo-new-yam-festival. html Robertico Rosendo croes. (2000), Anatomy of demand in international tourism, a case study of Aruba, Van Gorcum. ihttp://www. nasarawastatetourism. com/events/GbagyiGbogun. html Bob Mckercher, Hilary du cros. (2002), cultural tourism the partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management, U. S. A. the Haworth hospitality press. http://nigerianartatoyasaf. blogspot. com/2012/02/in-benin-igue-festival-2011-c elebrates. html Peter Robinson, Sine hietmann, peter Dieke. (2011), Research themes for tourism, UK, CAB international. http://www. onlinenigeria. com/festivals/? blurb=471 Milena Ivanovic. (2008), Cultural tourism, Cape Town, South Africa, Juta & company. ltd. ICOMOS AND UNWTO.
Friday, August 30, 2019
How students can tackle the problem of stress? Are you stressed? Good. That means you have stood up for something in your life. Do you have this experience? Look at this picture! This man is very stress because he has a lot of work to do at the same time. He needs to answer the phone calls, he has a pile of books to be settled and the time was running out. So, he was very stress at this time. If you have this experience, what ways you will you use to overcome your stress? It is little bit weird if do not having a stress because every people in this world having a hard time which is giving a stress to them.Good morning everybody! Today, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to discuss the three important ways to overcome stress among students. The points are students can do any kind of physical exercise that will keep your mind occupied, keep yourself busy with the individual interest that makes you happy and students should going out and socialize with friends or family members. Well, the three main poin ts had been told, so letÃ¢â¬â¢s go more detail to the first point which is doing any kind of physical exercise that will keep your mind occupied when having a stress.The first way how students overcome stress is by doing any kind of physical exercise that will keep your mind occupied. Those students who have a problem of handling a stress or anxiety, you should take a deep breath in and out to calm yourself down and to relax as well. You also should take a short walks or go around town for some fresh air. By doing this, it will give the mind a clear start and oxygen to the mind. Besides, you should always give a smile to everyone when having a stress because with a smile it can reduce our stress.In addition, you can with a stress through exercise and yoga. You can like this picture because they are very relaxing both physically and mentally and they also help to keep your mind off from any problems. Well, you already know that doing any kind of physical exercise that will keep you r mind occupied when having a stress. Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s proceed to the second point which is keeping yourself busy with the individual interest that makes you happy when you were stress.The second way how students can tackle the problem of having a stress is by keep yourself busy with the individual interest that makes you happy. When you were stress, you can create a hobby that you loved. In that way, your free time is full with something that you loved the most and something that you really really enjoyed it. At the end, you did not think anymore about getting a stress. Besides, when you were stress, you should join any club or association that can gives you a great time and wonderful moment.It also can give a new experience to you by joining the club or association. Last but not least, you get the benefit by getting a new knowledge. So, you know keep yourself busy with the individual interest that makes you happy will overcome your stress. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s continue with third point w hich is students should going out and socialize with friends or family members when having a stress. The third points how students can overcome stress are by going out and socialize with friends or family members. When having a stress, you should take a break such as take a holiday.You can go out and socialize with friends or relatives in order to stimulate your lifestyle and try to take it easier. Actually, students should take a good time off for them and relax. In addition, I recommend to you to talk with your friends or family about your feelings. But if the stress become totally overwhelming, then professional counseling might be helpful as well. Now, you know that when having a stress, students should go out and socialize with friends or family members. So, our investigation is complete.As you can see, there are three important ways to overcome stress among students which are students can do any kind of physical exercise that will keep your mind occupied, keep yourself busy wi th the individual interest that makes you happy and also students should go out and socialize with friends or family members. As a conclusion, stress is already having in the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. So, as a student, we cannot run from a stress problem. Therefore, donÃ¢â¬â¢t go away from it but try to deal with it. So my advice is being happier because when others look at you, they become happy too.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Business Analysis Written Report (Fcebook company) - Research Paper Example One of the major issues that Facebook is undergoing is privacy, a survey that was conducted in 2010 listed Facebook among the bottom five when it came to matters of privacy. The issue was first noted in 2006 after Facebook introduced News Feed, which showed every change made by the userÃ¢â¬â¢s friends to their pages, it also introduced a service called Beacon that would allow users see products that had been purchased by their friends. After an outcry from the users, privacy controls were implemented which allowed them to control the content they wanted to appear in the News Feed section. In the year 2012, Facebook made losses of over 157 million dollars combined with an IPO that fizzled out due to technical hitches and high expectations, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s expenses have nearly tripled due to payroll expenses and stock-based compensation. Economic Factors The state of the economy might be negatively affecting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue, as the cost of living appreciates; most p eople are forced to reduce on their spending and completely cot off unnecessary expenses. If the users are forced to be economical with their earnings, they might decide to reduce the amount of money they use on internet access charges their visits to the sites that they deem useful such as work or school related. In turn, Facebook might see a drop in their income as lesser people visit the site, which will in turn reduce the number of organizations that choose to advertise with the company. Sociocultural Factors One of the main objectives of Facebook was to bring people together as a social platform; it has successfully managed to do so seeing that it holds the largest number of users compared to any other social networking site. As people get busier, the community and families suffer because they no longer have the time to bond as it was in the earlier years but thanks to Facebook, members of a family or any other social group can keep in touch without being able to see each other physically. On the other side, certain sociocultural issues are affecting the company in a negative way, such as cyber bullying, cyber stalking and privacy. There is a rise in cases of people admitting to having been harassed via Facebook and suicide cases reported as a result, the users seem to be losing faith in the protection of privacy that Facebook accords them; this in turn leads to less site visits (Peterson 29). Global Factors Different global factors can influence the impact Facebook has in different regions, thereby determining whether the company is successful or not. Factors such as government regulation on the use of internet and banning of websites, as was the case in Syria, in 2007, when the government blocked Facebook to reduce online activism affect the company (Wilson, Kellerman and Corey 173). Other factors such as health issues come into play and might affect the revenue of the company as masses are being advised to spend less time on the internet, computer and other mobile device because of the health danger they pose. Technological Factors Technology is the medium that has brought forth the use of Facebook; it has made it one of the top 500 companies in the world and due to the increase use in technology, Facebook has become the most popular social networking site. On the other side, the growth in use of technology and devices such as mobile phones is becoming a threat to the financial prosperity of the company. The number of
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Solar power for the state of Nevada - Essay Example Interestingly, GIS offer a powerful way of establishing this through analysis of terrain as well as other geographical data. This project will attempt to establish the suitability of solar power for Nevada with the help of GIS. The hypothesis of this project will be "Solar energy is the most suitable option for fulfilling Nevada's power requirements" while the project will seek answer to the question "Is the use of solar energy the most suitable option for fulfilling Nevada's power requirements?Ã¢â¬ . This project will include use of ArcGIS software in modeling and analysis of geographical data. The project will also compare the suitability of solar energy with other renewable energy resources and how the use of solar option would transform Nevada. The research done is this project is expected to be useful for Nevada authorities in their attempt to seek the best alternative energy source.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Law Bachelor - Essay Example Yang. So, Ying and Yang cannot enforce Mei's initial offer. Intention:Mei, Ying and Yang were colleagues, and not professional gamblers. The general presumption is that there was no legal intention involved. However, the presumption can be rebutted, taking into consideration the seriousness of the consequences. But assessed objectively, the presumption can't be set aside due to the lack of any written or verbal contract acceptance of Mei's initial offer. Consideration: Finally, Mei refused to share the winnings, although initially she volunteered to "buy one last ticket on behalf of them all". Courts will not intervene, for a contract didn't exist at all. It was a verbal contract till four weekly tickets were purchased with the $120 won from the first ticket. The final instance is an evidence akin to Australian Woollen Mills Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1954). Mei's proposal was merely a statement and not an offer capable of acceptance. This mentioned clearly in: " what is alleged to be an offer should have been intended to give rise, on the doing of the act to an obligationin the absence of such an intention, actual or imputed, the alleged offer cannot lead to a contract: there is indeed in such a case no true offer." (Graw Stephen, An Introduction to the Contract 5th edition, Lawbook Co. 2005, p. 41) . Question 2 Ying was tired of her long musical career so on 3 April she offered to sell her piano to Molly for $3500, saying that she would keep the offer open for ten days. Molly already had two pianos in her shop and was therefore reluctant to buy it. However, always ready to try for a bargain, she replied on 6 April with a verbal offer to buy it for $2500. This was not acceptable to Ying. In the meantime, Molly had... During 2003 the life of an Aboriginal artist, Albert Namatjira, was celebrated in a number of ways, including an exhibition in the Art Gallery of South Australia of his paintings from the 1930's to 1958. Albert Namatjira had a number of relatives who also produced similar paintings of varying quality. Albert's paintings are more valuable than those of other family members. Boondok, a dealer in paintings, located a painting of a desert landscape in colour with the name 'Namatjira' written in the bottom corner of the painting. He paid $50 for it. This painting was painted by one of Albert's cousins and was worth approximately $500. Boondok knew this. Albert Namatjira always signed his paintings, 'Albert Namatjira' in the bottom corner of each painting he did. Boondok placed his landscape painting in his gallery's front window with a price tag of $8,000 on it. Tex, a tourist, saw Boondok's painting on display. Tex said to Boondok, " I have always wanted a genuine Namatjira and here it is. I will buy it." Boondok replied, "It is always nice to buy something that pleases you. Hope you enjoy the painting." The plaintiff bought a bottle of wine from the defendant.The plaintiff was injured due to the sudden ejection of a hidden stopper when he opened the bottle at his home.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Analysis of International Politic - Article Example mon man, in most cases, for over three to four decades in power and still had no inclination to leave office unless they were over thrown from their lofty pedestals which they inevitably were eventually. The sacrifices of these brave people bore fruit yet gradually but surely the euphoria of getting rid of these corrupt regimes is slowly giving way to a feeling of hopelessness and helplessness. Why? The answer to this simple question is also simple. These dictators ruled their countries with such a strong iron fist that once they are gone they have left behind a huge vacuum which cannot be filled soon. Such was their hold on power that after their removal the whole governmental machinery has come to a halt. Another alarming aspect of this whole scenario is that these rulers were able to extend their illegal governments with the help of the military-mullah nexus. So once they have been booted out of power the only logical substitute are the men in uniform or the Islamic fantasists, an even gloomier prospectus indeed. In fact if we seriously consider the issue these new forces now vying for power in these countries are an extension of the old regimes, as once a scholar wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"New Wine In Old BottlesÃ¢â¬ (Thompson, 1962: 125). It is fully justified to add that the West, especially the successive United States governments, in order to promote their own interests have been instrumental in safeguarding and prolonging these corrupt regimes and the individuals at their helm and are equal to blame for the misery these rulers have perpetuated on their people, by silencing dissent of any kind though the Constitution of the United States guarantees freedoms (like that of speech) for its own citizens. If conclusion if the regressive forces in favor of status quo are once again successful in occupying the echelons of power in these countries America and the West would be solely responsible for all these sacrifices to have been in vain and a black blotch on Western history,
Sunday, August 25, 2019
An Analysis of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club - Essay Example Four sets of mothers and daughters, namely, (1) Ying-Ying St. Claire and Lena, (2) Suyuan Woo and Jing-Mei, (3) Lindo Jong and Waverly, and (4) An-Mei Hsu and Rose, are divided along the lines of culture and generation. The mothers, or the older generation, are still attached to the ancestral tradition of their native soil. In contrast, the daughters, or the younger generation, caught between their ancestral background and their Westernized education, are having a great difficulty integrating into Western culture. However, Jing-Mei is compelled to take on a Ã¢â¬Ëdifferent mindsetÃ¢â¬â¢ when she is summoned by the Joy Luck Club to continue the membership of her deceased mother. Jing-Mei is anxious that she may not possess the character to take the place of her mother, but the other mothers view her Ã¢â¬Ëbeing thereÃ¢â¬â¢ as a chance to restore their ties with their own daughters. The mothers help Jing-Mei rediscover her heritage and her ties with her mother by guiding her in r ecreating her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s memoirs. Jing-Mei, in the end, accomplishes the dying hope of her mother to locate the children she abandoned in China, and her personal hope to restore her ties with her half-siblings and her ancestral identity. So what does this say about Jing-MeiÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with her mother? The mother-daughter relationship between Jing-Mei and Suyuan is burdened with disagreement, mostly due to generational gap, but in the end founded on empathy, affinity, and devotion for one another. Due to major disparities in their upbringing, cultural backgrounds, and experiences, this mother and daughter have plenty of clashing beliefs and values. These problems, besides their severed connection, brought a lot of problems throughout their relationship. Jing-Mei even admits: Ã¢â¬Å"My mother and I never really understood each other. We translated each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s meanings and I seemed to hear less than what was said, while my mother heard moreÃ¢â¬ (Tan 2006, 37) . These gaps are bridged when Jing-Mei rediscovers the life story of her mother and appreciates their generational differences. Likewise, An-Mei Hsu and Rose have opposing perspectives on life. This clash can be attributed to the fact that Rose has been reared in a totally different culture from that of her ancestral tradition. She does not have sympathy for her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and life perspective. Rose thinks her mother is not being true to herself when she expressed resentment against her impending divorce. She believes this because she witnessed when her mother became distrustful of religion. Nevertheless, when looking at this mother-daughter relationship, it becomes apparent that their connection is sustained by the strength of An-Mei. She tries to instill in her daughter the strength of facing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own problems and fears. Rose and An-Mei confront generational differences as well because Rose chooses an American husband. Thus, when her mother tries to persuade h er to keep her marriage, Rose says, Ã¢â¬Å"think[s] itÃ¢â¬â¢s that my mother wants me to fight divorceÃ¢â¬ (Tan 2006, 117). Evidently, this mother-daughter relationship is burdened with conflict because of cultural differences and generational gaps. As illustrated, they would attempt to accomplish totally different answers to the same issues. Rose only wants happiness for herselfÃ¢â¬âa Westernized attitude-- whereas An-Mei tries to persuade
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Atlantic Stingray (Dasyatis Sabina) - Essay Example DESCRIPTION: The Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur 1824) has a disc shape typical to all stingrays, and it is one of the smallest in its family (Piercy). It has a spade-like body form, having a relatively long snout and a long, slender, whip-like tail (McEachran 177). It has a brown to or yellowish coloration on the dorsal side which goes lighter near the edges and white or light gray on the ventral side (Passareli). To distinguish it from other similar genera, characters such as a certain ratio of snout length (25-27% of the total disc width) and snout angle (maximum of 107-122Ã °) confirm its species identity. The outer corners of the disc body are broadly-rounded, while the posterior margin is moderately convex. The floor of the mouth has a row of three stout papillae, and has 28-36 rows of teeth. Both males and females have similar-looking teeth, rounded and having flat, blunt surfaces, except during mating season when the males develop sharper and narrower sets for cl asping the female during copulation (Tricas 224). The tail is similar to a whip, long and tapered with a barb measuring up to 25% of the disc width, and this modified scale secretes venom from both the dorsal and ventral sides (Passareli). Maximum disc size could reach up to 12.8 inches in males and 14.6 inches in females living in coastal or brackish lagoons, while for freshwater rays sizes reach up to 8.7 inches for females and 8.3 inches for males. Like other members of the cartilaginous fishes, the Atlantic stingray is capable of generating weak electrical fields, both in finding prey and females at the benthic zone. FOOD: Food can be primarily anything that can be caught near the bottom of the habitat or the benthic zone, and these are mostly polychaetes, crustaceans, and bony fishes (McEachran 177). Other reported organisms that are hunted include bivalves, tube anemones, clams, nereid worms, and amphipods (Passareli). HABITAT: Atlantic stingrays live in brackish benthic water systems, where the saltwater meets fresh waters coming from estuaries (Johnson 75). There is a preference for sandy bottoms but with water depths less than 25m (Piercy). These fish migrate from brackish waters to fresh waters and back again, depending on the climate of the areas, which shows that they have varying but wide degrees of salt tolerance. Water temperature ranges for the species is around 24.5Ã °C-31.0Ã °C (Wallman 259). MATING: Initial studies mentioned that Atlantic stingray mating seasons start from late March when ovulation in females begin and lasts up to July (Johnson 74). Later studies indicated that the mating season could last as long as nine months, from August to April of the following year (Tricas 209). Changes seen in the males such as sharper teeth happen during the breeding season in order to clasp the females during copulation, which is comparable to some mating behavior of related species like in some sharks. PREDATORS: Predators depend on the location of the Atlantic stingrays. In brackish to coastal areas, sharks such as white shark, tiger sharks and bull sharks are the major predators (Passareli). In freshwaters, alligators are reported to be the major stingray predators. BEHAVIOR: Atlantic stingrays are non-aggressive fish, and only attack when stepped on (Passareli). When hunting for food, rays swim slowly near
Whether the No child Left Behind Act has an effect on graduation rates and the economic growth of the State of Georgia - Essay Example For instance, the law requires states to test students in reading and math by 2014 which challenges their learning ability skills. Georgia is the state with most high school dropouts and poorest record in the percentage of high school graduates. Georgia attributes these poor records to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s vast economic challenges ever since the Great Recession period. In sum, it is clear from the report that the graduation rates as per ethnic groups in the U.S have increased since the implementation of the NCLB act. Evidence from the data that was statistically proven, it was realized that the African American graduation rate was at 44%; whiteÃ¢â¬â¢s graduation rate was 61% and Latinos was 32%. From the analysis all states in the U.S need to ensure that all students attend schools in order to increase graduation rates. Additionally, policymakers need to ensure that all ethnic groups attend schools to avoid the increase in number of school dropout as it is the case in Georgia. Center for Civic Innovation (CCI) At the Manhattan Institute. (April 2002). High School Graduation Rates in the United States. Web. 12 April 2014 Retrieved from
Friday, August 23, 2019
Human resource management - Assignment Example This study attempts to provide detailed analysis of role of human resource management for entire industry in the UK in context with the laws and recommendations are provided to strategically manage the human resource in improved way. This study focuses on HR practices, roles and processes of Hilton Hotel as an example of hospitality industry of the country. As a human resource manager of a hospitality organisation, the role and purpose of HRM is to formulate and execute strategies that are best fit for the organisation so as to achieve efficiency and organisational objectives. A set of multiple HR activities and strategies is briefly discussed as follows: The most important HR function of an organisation is to select right people for the right jobs keeping in view skills, aptitude, motivation, etc for the long run. This is a complete process comprised of several steps designed to filter and choose the right candidate. Hilton Hotel focuses to hire people through testing, interviewing and screening; however it can further improve the process by applying psychometric tools so that the pool of applicants becomes large and candidates are systematically filtered in less time. The existing and new employees need to be trained and equipped according to the dynamic external environment so as to effectively compete in the global and domestic market. Training Need Assessment (TNA) is a process to grasp the lagging skills and potential of the people in organisational context which helps to design training programs effectively. Hilton Hotel has training programs mostly focused around customer services while management training, sustainability and competitiveness training can add value to human capital of the organisation despite keeping a single focus as it is reported that skill gap is 21% in the industry. The employees once selected and trained become an asset for the organisation and they need to be retained to save cost and
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Pieter Bruegel Essay The Renaissance was a period of time between the 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, where new views of art and science were created. There were many important figures in this time period. Artists contributed a lot of information to the Renaissance in their art. Among these great artists was a Flemish artist by the name of Pieter Bruegel. Bruegel was significant to the Renaissance era because of his remarkable paintings that showed everyday life scenes during the Renaissance period in Europe. BruegelÃ¢â¬Ës time was much different than life as we know it now. Pieter Bruegel was born around 1527, near Netherlands. He was most likely born in the town of Bruegel, Brabant (Gibson 13). Like many young boys during the Renaissance, Bruegel studied his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s craft, which was art. Bruegel was most likely one of the more wealthy residents of Netherlands. This enabled him to attend school at a young age. Though most of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s early life is unknown, we can infer how everyday life may have been during the Renaissance. Pieter Bruegel was taught more in depth about art shortly after his childhood. Pieter Bruegel had a great education. BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers were skilled artists. Claude Dorizi, one of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers, was an art dealer in Malines. Another one of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers was Pieter Coeke. At the age of about 34, Bruegel entered the paintersÃ¢â¬â¢ guild at Antwerp(Gibson 13-15). There, he improved his painting skills and learned how to paint more realistic scenes. Bruegel later started painting both religious and everyday common place scenes. This shows that BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s education really seemed to develop his painting skills into a new level of artist expression. Bruegel accomplished a lot in his life. Some of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous works are Peasant Wedding and The Triumph of Death(Stechow 47). In Peasant Wedding, the wedding guests are shown as stocky figures celebrating a simple wedding feast(World Book 648). The Triumph of Death is much different. It shows an army of skeletons roaming a fiery, dark landscape. In about 1553, Bruegel collaborated with several artists, especially the famous artist, Giulio Clovio(Stechow 45). Bruegel was slowly becoming famous, and began to make drawings for Hierorymus Cock( Stechow 45). Many of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s painting taught, and still teach a moral(World Book 648). This shows us that Bruegel cared about education. Bruegel traveled a lot during his later life. In about 1562, he visited Amsterdam(Stechow 45). Bruegel returned to live in Brussels, which is in Belgium(Stechow 45). There he married and had two children, Jan and Pieter(Gibson 17). In about 1568, Bruegel moved to Antwerp(Stechow 45). Bruegel lived in Antwerp for about two years, leading up to his death. Bruegel died around 1569-1571(Gibson 13). He was about 44 years old at the time of his death. This shows that even though Bruegel died at a relatively young age, he improved the Renaissance. Bruegel greatly influenced the Renaissance with his great knowledge of art. Bruegel was an important Flemish artist. He was born around 1527. Bruegel entered the paintersÃ¢â¬â¢ guild at Antwerp in 1551. Some of BruegelÃ¢â¬â¢s famous works include Peasant Wedding and The Triumph of Death. Bruegel died close to the year 1569-1571.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Issues And Challenges Facing Nurses Nursing Essay Mary Seacole gained her reputation after the Crimean War (1853-1856). Florence Nightingale needed 40 nurses to work in a hospital in London. Although Mary Seacole went to London and brought many letters of recommendation from doctors with whom she had worked, she was told her services were not needed. In 1855, Mary Seacole went back to London anyway, funding her own way there. To pay for the long sea journey, she took food and other useful things with her. She established the British Hotel where soldiers were able to buy food and drinks. Mary cared for the soldiers and helped the wounded soldiers on the battlefield. She gained the name Mother Seacole. She was honored with many awards and medals for her dedication to helping soldiers. Mary Elizabeth Carnegie Mary Elizabeth Carnegie Carnegie graduated with a diploma from Lincoln School of Nurses in New York in 1937. Carnegie earned a BA degree from West Virginia State College; a certificate from the University of Toronto; an MA from Syracuse University and a DPA from New York University. Carnegie initiated the BSN program at Hampton University in Virginia. She also started the BSN program while assuming the position of Dean of Florida AM University School of Nursing in Tallahassee, which became the first National League for Nursing accredited program in the state of Florida. In 1942, the Florida State Nurses Association (FSNA) voted to admit black nurses to membership. Although they paid dues, black nurses were not allowed to speak or participate in meetings. Carnegies contributions as a nurse scholar and leader helped break down racial barriers. She became a full member of FSNA in 1948, and by 1949, was elected to the board of directors. Carnegie was inducted into the FNA Hall of Fame. She served as the editor of Nursing Research and served on the editorial staff of the American Journal of Nursing from 1953 to 1978. Carnegie also authored three books: Disadvantaged Students in RN Programs, Historical Perspectives of Nursing Research, and The Path We Tread: Blacks in Nursing, 1854-1994. Rhetaugh Graves Dumas Rhetaugh Graves Dumas was a pioneer and vibrant leader in nursing. She was a graduate of Dillard University School of Nursing in 1951. She was the first African American woman and the first nurse to be officially selected as deputy director of the National Institute of Mental Health. Rhetaugh received her MSN from Yale and was the first nurse to perform a randomized experimental design to study clinical nursing problems. She was the Vice Provost of Health Affairs at UM and the Lucille Cole Professor of Nursing. In 1997, she was named Dean Emerita and Vice Provost Emerita of the University of Michigan. She was a founding member and former president of the American Academy of Nursing, and wrote an influential research paper, The Effect of Nursing Care on Postoperative Vomiting. She also wrote the oft-cited Dilemmas of Black Females in Leadership in 1980. Mary Mahoney Mary Mahoney was admitted to the New England Hospital for Women and Children nursing program at the age of thirty-three. The program was sixteen months and included lectures and hands-on patient care. Of the forty-two students admitted to the program, only four graduated and Mary Mahoney was one of those four graduates. She received her nursing certification on August 1, 1879, making her the first African-American in history to earn a professional nursing license. Mary was most noted for her hard work to improve the status of African-American nurses and encourage the expansion of intercultural relations. Mary was the co-founder of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses in 1908. Mary Mahoney helped open the doors of opportunity for the African-American nurses. Beverly Malone Dr. Beverly Malone PhD, RN, FAAN has been since July 2001, general secretary of the Royal College of Nursing. She is also a board member of HEFCE. While working as dean and professor of the School of Nursing at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University at Greensboro, she also served on the Governors Task Force on the Nursing Shortage and was a commissioner of the North Carolina Commission on Health Services. Dr. Malone held the positions of president of the American Nurses Association (ANA) (1996-2000) and Deputy Assistant Secretary at the United States Department of Health and Human Services for a one year term. Dr. Malone also served as the representative of the U.S. International Council of Nurses. Dr. Malone has also served on former President HYPERLINK http://en.nursingwiki.org/index.php?title=President_Clintonaction=editredlink=1Bill Clintons Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. Dr. Malone was later appointed as a member of the U.S. delegation to the World Health Assembly, by former President Clinton and was a part of the presidents table discussion on the Patients Bill of Rights. Dr. Malone also served on the board of directors of the National Patient Safety Partnership, a collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the American Medical Association and other national health care organizations. She was the second African-American to serve as president of the ANA. Interview 1 nurse who was employed in nursing prior to 1980s I interviewed Kathleen Venable who graduated from Alcorn State University with an ASN. Kathleen also received a BSN from Loyola University and a Masters of Science from Southeastern Louisiana University. I asked her about a typical day shift, beginning and ending salary and similarities and differences with contemporary nursing prior to the 1980s. Typical day/shift Mrs. Venable worked at Catahoula hospital, a sixty-four bed hospital in Jonesville, LA. The hospital is split into east and west wings. She worked on a thirty-four bed hall. The unit consisted of two RNs (one head nurse), a LPN and 2 Certified Nursing Assistants. The head nurse was in charge of documenting all orders from doctors and any stat orders that needed to be brought other places someone off the unit had to bring it. The other floor RN was responsible for starting all IVs and administering all IV push medications. If the unit was full the nurses were assigned 15 patients a piece. Beginning and ending salary Mrs. Venable beginning salary was 8.25 and when she left a year later and went to Our Lady of the Lake she was offered 8.25 with shift differential. Now the average starting salary in Louisiana is 19.25-20.00 an hour with shift differentials. Similarities and differences with contemporary nursing There were many differences with nursing compared to now there was no set limit to nurse to patient ratio, there werent any Braden or pain scales. There were no resources to help the patients after being discharged from the hospital such as social workers, home health, Council on Aging or rehabilitation services. Nurses were unable to challenge a doctors decision and be the best patient advocate they could be because whatever the doctor said no one could question it for fear of losing their job. Similarities the nursing process was around and the typical working shift is still the same (12 hour shifts). She stated that there is much advancement in medicine today but the amount of time and energy is still the same in patient care. Review 1 prominent nursing journal published in early 1900s What are the similarities and differences with the same journal in the early 1990s compared to the 2000s Emphasize nursing roles and responsibilities The American Journal of nursing is the oldest nursing journal around. In the 1990s the journal wrote about mandating nursing caps, how to keep up with your staff after retirement and Faculty as relief staff to palliative care, and responding to disasters. The focus is still improving patient care but with all the recent tragedies America has had, the journal has shifted to teaching nurses how to care for patient after catastrophes. The Present Which nurses or nurse educators serve as role models to you? What are some of that persons characteristics that attract you? The nurses that serve as my role model are London Lewis (sister-in-law) and Mrs. Lois Bridgewater. London Lewis graduated from William Carey University. She is married with a child, but she didnt allow that to stop her. She is now in a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist program and is scheduled to graduate in May 2011. London was a full time wife and mother all while receiving a BSN and working on her current degree. London graduated from William Carey and her professors continue to speak highly of her motivation and dedication to becoming a nurse. Mrs. Lois Bridgewater is also one of my role models. She was my clinical instructor in nursing 310. What amazes me about her is the drive she has to accomplish everything she set out to do. She is an expert in her field and while at North Oaks Hospital, the staff respected her decisions and work ethics. Mrs. Bridgewater is not only a nurse but also a Certified Midwife, and shes working on her Family Nurse Practitioner. Respond to the following questions: What types of software skills are critical for new nurses entering the workforce? The type of software skills needed for new nurses entering the workforce are Microsoft Office which includes Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access and Outlook. Why is it important for new nurses to be able to search the Internet for information? It is important for new nurses to be able to search the Internet for information, in the event they have a question about something and there arent any resources available to you at that moment. The nurse can always get on the computer and find the information needed at that moment. The Future What are some of the challenges you see facing the nursing profession in the The challenges I see facing the nursing profession is patient healthcare due to nursing shortage. With the shortage of nurses, there is an increase in the patient to nurse ratio. With more patients, a nurse has less time to spend with each patient, which causes a decrease in the quality of care to all patients.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Structure and Function of Cells EUKARYOTIC CELL DESCRIPTION/FUNCTION: A. CELL MEMBRANE AND THE FUNCTIONS: CELL MEMBRANE Also called the plasma membrane gives mechanical strength to the cell. Its unique structure enables itself to serve as molecular traffic regulator. It is 5 up to 10 um in thickness. It also exhibits fluid mosaic nature, seal itsef if broken. B. THE CYTOPLASM AND ITS ORGANELLES CYTOPLASM A mass of jelly-like material that is somewhat grayish or colorless, translucent and viscous It can change from semi solid to semi liquid. C. CELL ORGANELLES ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) is the transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that will float freely in the cytoplasm. ER has two forms: the rough ER and the smooth ER. RIBOSOMES The ribosome is a large complex composed of many molecules, including RNAs and proteins, and is responsible for processing the genetic instructions carried by an mRNA. Ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm or sometimes bind to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum MITOCHONDRIA are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria have two functionally distinct membrane systems separated by a space: the outer membrane, which surrounds the whole organelle; and the inner membrane, which is thrown into folds or shelves that project inward. These inward folds are called cristae. Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell, and this process involves a number of complex pathways GOLGI BODIES OR GOLGI APPARATUS (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for export from the cell. LYSOSOMES are often referred to as the garbage disposal system of a cell. digest foreign bacteria that invade a cell. helping to recycle receptor proteins and other membrane components and degrading worn out organelles such as mitochondria. Lysosomes can even help repair damage to the plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the wound. MICROBODIES Variety of organelles similar to lysosome but contains different enzymes. One of these is the glyxoxysomes present in some plant, another is peroxisomes which contain powerful oxidative enzymes. CYTOSKELETON Microtubules that provide support to the internal system of cell thus, it provides support and shape. Also provides pathways for certain cellular molecules to move. VACUOLES Membrane- bound, fluid- filled spaces found in both animal and plant cell but bigger in plant cell. The vacuolar membrane is also called tonoplast and they contain liquid cell sap. MICROFILAMENTS Are long thread like extremely thin filaments first seen in skeletal muscle cells that gives the cell a striped appearance. CENTRIOLES Small dark bodies located just outside the nucleus of most animal cells. They are cylindrical structures and two of them lie close together. Associated in the spindle fibers of dividing animal cells. PLASTIDS Are cytoplasmic orhanelles found in cells of most plants. NUCLEUS It houses the cells chromosomes and is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis occur. The nucleus is spheroid in shape and separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane called the nuclear envelope. CELL WALL a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant. CHLOROPLASTS are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Chloroplasts convert light energy from the sun into ATP through a process called photosynthesis. CENTROSOME (also called the microtubule organizing center) a small body located near the nucleus it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. GRANUM (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum. NUCLEOLUS an organelle within the nucleus it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PLANT CELL AND ANIMAL CELL Basis of Comparison Plant cells Animal cells 1. plasma membrane present Present 2. Cell wall present Absent 3. Lysosome Absent Present 4. Plastids Present Absent 5. Vacuoles Small but many Large but fewer 6. Chloroplast present Absent PROKARYOTIC CELL A TYPICAL BACTERIAL CELL DESCRIPTION/FUNCTION: 1. NUCLEOID a nuclear region where the chromosomal matter is found. DNA in the bacterial cell is generally confined to this central region. Though it isnt bounded by a membrane, it is visibly distinct from the rest of the cell interior. Prokaryotic cells genome usually consists of a single, large, circular DNA molecule 2. RIBOSOMES give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs. Though smaller than the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells, these inclusions have a similar function in translating the genetic message in messenger RNA into the production of peptide sequences. 3. VESICLES relatively small and enclosed compartments, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. If they have only one lipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. 4. CAPSULE a layer of polysaccharide (sometimes proteins) that protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by white blood cells. 5. CELL WALL is composed of peptidoglycan (polysaccharides + protein), the cell wall maintains the overall shape of a bacterial cell. The three primary shapes in bacteria are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral). Mycoplasma are bacteria that have no cell wall and therefore have no definite shape. 6. PLASMA MEMBRANE is a lipid bilayer much like the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane of other cells. There are numerous proteins moving within or upon this layer that are primarily responsible for transport of ions, nutrients and waste across the membrane. 7. PILI are hollow, hairlike structures made of protein allow bacteria to attach to other cells. A specialized pilus, the sex pilus, allows the transfer from one bacterial cell to another. Pili (sing., pilus) are also called fimbriae (sing., fimbria). 8. FLAGELLA The purpose of flagella (sing., flagellum) is motility. Flagella are long appendages which rotate by means of a motor located just under the cytoplasmic membrane. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL Basis of Comparison Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic Cell 1. Nuclear Membrane Absent Present 2. Chromosomes Single Multiple 3. ER Absent Present 4. Golgi apparatus Absent Present 5. Lysosomes Absent Present 6. Mitochondria Absent Present 7. Ribosome Small Large
Monday, August 19, 2019
Tiger Woods: The making of a Champion Matt Buyan C-period 1-1-97 TIGER WOODS THE MAKING OF A CHAMPION BY: JOHN GARRITY Eldrick Tiger Woods was born in Brooklyn, NY on December 30, 1975. His parents names are Earl and Kutildra. Earl is a Ã ¼ American Indian, a Ã ¼ Chinese and half Black. Kutildra is a Ã ¼ White, a Ã ¼ Chinese and half Thai. Both of Earl's parents were dead by the time he was 13. He named his son "Tiger" after his Vietnam War partner Nguyen Phong of the South Vietnamese army. He nicknamed him Tiger for his iron will and bravery. Around 1967 or 1968 they lost contact and never spoke to one another since. Earl hopes that 1 day Nguyen will see his son' s name either on TV or in a paper and contact him, so they can reunite. Tiger was first introduced to golf by his father who bought him a junior golf set as a kid. Tiger and his family now live in Cypress, California and he stands a tall 6'4 and weighs a lean 155. Now about his golfing days. Tiger won the 1991, 1992, and 1993 U.S Junior Amateur championships. When winning his third he brought out a record attendance of over 15,000 spectators. Woods was also the first African- American to win the U.S Juniors. He quotes " when I am up at the tee all I think about is where I want my ball to go". During this whole time Tiger attended Stanford college and maintained straight A's in his sophomore year. He had originally planed to graduate from Stanford before going pro, but when Nike offered him a 42 million dollar deal to wear their clothes for 5 years he couldn' t resist. This was not the only reason he decided to go pro. After an excellent finish in the British Open, Tiger felt that he also had enough mental strength to go pro. His parents are very supportive of him and felt fine with this. Wood' s first pro win was the Las Vegas invitational. At the Honors Course in Texas he brought out an enormous crowd. Of the 14,694 tickets sold, 14,000 were fans wanting to see their Tiger. If you were to ever meet Tiger Woods for yourself he would probably be the nicest person you will ever meet. He signs just about every autograph and is never mean to fans. Tiger and his father gave out free golf lessons to caddies and junior golfers. Many of you may no his nickname the "Come Back Kid", he got Tiger Woods: The Making Of A Champion :: essays research papers Tiger Woods: The making of a Champion Matt Buyan C-period 1-1-97 TIGER WOODS THE MAKING OF A CHAMPION BY: JOHN GARRITY Eldrick Tiger Woods was born in Brooklyn, NY on December 30, 1975. His parents names are Earl and Kutildra. Earl is a Ã ¼ American Indian, a Ã ¼ Chinese and half Black. Kutildra is a Ã ¼ White, a Ã ¼ Chinese and half Thai. Both of Earl's parents were dead by the time he was 13. He named his son "Tiger" after his Vietnam War partner Nguyen Phong of the South Vietnamese army. He nicknamed him Tiger for his iron will and bravery. Around 1967 or 1968 they lost contact and never spoke to one another since. Earl hopes that 1 day Nguyen will see his son' s name either on TV or in a paper and contact him, so they can reunite. Tiger was first introduced to golf by his father who bought him a junior golf set as a kid. Tiger and his family now live in Cypress, California and he stands a tall 6'4 and weighs a lean 155. Now about his golfing days. Tiger won the 1991, 1992, and 1993 U.S Junior Amateur championships. When winning his third he brought out a record attendance of over 15,000 spectators. Woods was also the first African- American to win the U.S Juniors. He quotes " when I am up at the tee all I think about is where I want my ball to go". During this whole time Tiger attended Stanford college and maintained straight A's in his sophomore year. He had originally planed to graduate from Stanford before going pro, but when Nike offered him a 42 million dollar deal to wear their clothes for 5 years he couldn' t resist. This was not the only reason he decided to go pro. After an excellent finish in the British Open, Tiger felt that he also had enough mental strength to go pro. His parents are very supportive of him and felt fine with this. Wood' s first pro win was the Las Vegas invitational. At the Honors Course in Texas he brought out an enormous crowd. Of the 14,694 tickets sold, 14,000 were fans wanting to see their Tiger. If you were to ever meet Tiger Woods for yourself he would probably be the nicest person you will ever meet. He signs just about every autograph and is never mean to fans. Tiger and his father gave out free golf lessons to caddies and junior golfers. Many of you may no his nickname the "Come Back Kid", he got
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The environmental relationship between the United States and Canada has been very consistent and free from any kind of controversy or warfare. Canada has always been an ally to the United States and has had a good relationship in all matters including the environment. It would be very costly for the United States to cut ties with Canada because they are very close to the U.S. and provide many environmental and trade opportunities for them also. The only environmental problems between the U.S. and Canada is due to the transboundary smog that has been drifting over into the U.S. from Canadian companies located close to the U.S.-Canada border. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Canada and the United States have provided each other with many environmental and trade opportunities. One example of this was seen in 1991 when these two countries signed an agreement on Air Quality in order to protect both countries from the increasing amounts of acidic rain that had begun to fall on the two countries. This agreement was not meant to hinder either country, but instead to better each countries environment. Another way, a rather extensive way that the United States and Canada have joined forces to help CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s environment is through aid sent to Canada from the US. The United States has laid the foundation for environmental protection programs in Canada so that the Canadians would be knowledgeable about their environment. This knowledge would include ways to protect the environment and to preserve it. The United States has also provided millions of dollars for Canada to use in order to create programs to preserve their environment. I feel that the policy the United States should use towards Canada in terms of environmentalism in the future should be very similar to the current policy.
Psycho-Sexual Reading of The Fall of the House of Usher Ã Ã Ã Ã The idea that "The Fall of the House of Usher" is in part an investigation into sexual motivation and sexual guilt complexes has often been hinted at but never critically pursued as the dominant theme in the tale. But such a reading is at least prepared for in important essays by D. H. Lawrence and Allen Tate which make the essential recognition that "The Fall of the House of Usher" is a "love" story (1). Lawrence and Tate, however, mistakenly attempt to purge the love concerned of all physical meaning. What they see Usher wanting is possession not of Madeline's body but her very being (Lawrence, p. 86). Theirs is essentially an anti-biological reading of the tale in which the Poe hero tries in self-love "to turn the soul of the heroine into something like a physical object which can be known in direct cognition" (fate, p. 115). But if "The Fall of the House of Usher" is a drama of cognition, its cognitive impact is not circumscribed by "metaphysical speculation on the i dentity of matter and spirit" (2). Ã In this connection, Patrick F. Quinn's suggestion that Usher is a criminal merits attention (3). He is, in a biological reading of the story, a sexual criminal, and a critic like Richard Wilbur, who suggests that the poetic soul is out to "shake off this temporal, rational, physical world and escape . . . to a realm of unfettered vision," lifts us out of rather than urges us into the depths which humanity in the person of Usher has touched (4). Caroline Gordon and Allen Tate are closer to the truth when they call [column 2:] Usher "a 'Gothic' character taken seriously" and when they view "The Fall of the House of Usher" as "a serious story of moral perv... ...267. (5) Caroline Gordon and Allen Tate, The Ho?`se of Fiction (New York: Scribner's, 1960), p. 53. (6) See Albert Mordell's comment on the tale and Usher in The Erotic Motive in Literature, rev. ed. (New York: Collier Books, 1962), p. 173: "As we learn from psycho-analysis, morbid fear is inhibited sexual desire; it is reaction against the libido." [column 2:] (7) The editors of The Literature of The United States (Chicago: Scott-Foresman, 1949), p. 317, note 17, favor the more familiar explanation which links the doctor with a gang of body-snatchers. Thus Usher chooses to entomb his sister in the vaults of the house rather than in the family graveyard. (8) Darrel Abel, "A Key to The House of Usher," rpt. in Interpretations of American Literature, ed. Charles Feidelson, Jr. and Paul Brodtkorb, Jr. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 53.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Crisis is a condition, which upsets the balance in the regular functioning of a person, family or a society in a destructive fashion and the situations can not be overcome through general problem solving resources. Crisis leads to a stressful situation, which is generally difficult to cope with, and needs proper and planned ways of intervention to be resolved. To understand crisis, a scenario can be discussed. In this case the person in crisis was a girl of 13 years of age belonging to an Indian tribal family. She worked for a family as domestic help. She was very thin and weak but extremely aggressive in nature. The person who identified her problem was the lady who employed her. The lady was a housewife from a well to do family. According to the lady, the girl started working at her place at the age of 11. She belonged to a local tribal family where girl child was not at all welcome. She had three younger sisters and a brother. Her parents were working as daily laborers. Her father spent all the hard earned money to the local wine shop and her mother found it extremely difficult to support the family with her meager income. She sent her eldest daughter to work and earn money for the family. Not only that, her father used to beat her and her mother regularly for money. The girl was extremely malnourished and neglected and was used as a money earning machine. Her employer tried to send her to a school but did not succeed as according to her family going to school was complete wastage of time. The problems of child labor, lack of education, gender bias, physical abuse, problem between parents all existed together in her life. This was not a typical case but a general picture in several poor backward class families in India. The situation is treated as a crisis because the solution of all these problems was beyond the capacity of the little girl. She was the victim of the situation of chronic crisis in her family and was unable to cope with the situation. It was evident from her aggressive nature, attraction towards bad company, eagerness to shun her family, physical injuries and weakness, etc. She was a victim of developmental crisis. Her parents unknowingly restricted the development of her physical and psychological health. Hailing from a poor tribal family only aggravated her situation. The social class she belonged to was not at all favorable to a girl child. They generally thought of them as family burden as the child was unable to earn for them and after growing up was going to support another family after marriage. Lack of knowledge and education made them treat school education as wastage of time and money. Being a child the girl could not speak her mind or was suppressed forcibly. Thus, she lacked education, was forced to work, losing her psychological balance and was growing to lead a cluttered and abusive life and may also become a problem for the society. Timely intervention at the time of crisis is the most important part in crisis intervention. In most of the cases of child abuse it is often too late before the society comes to know about the occurrence and can take any action to save the child or repair the damage. In this case as the event was of chronic crisis the intervention may start as soon as the crisis was identified. Here the child needed a support system either from family or outside. Her employer in this case could provide the support, which was lacking from her family. (Ã¢â¬Å"Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectÃ¢â¬ ) During crisis individuals generally experience some common feelings that can affect psychological balance and produce impact on assessment and treatment of the crisis. These kinds of feelings and their reflection in life should not be treated as mental illness. In such conditions people may show disorganized and confusing behavior where they forget important details or practice inappropriate actions which were helpful in the past. They tend to confuse fear and wishes with reality. To cope with such disorganization they tend to be involved in insignificant activities. Crisis laden people may become hostile or emotionally distant from any sort of intervention. Some people act impulsively without thinking about the consequences and lead to more complex situation. People may depend completely on the person trying to help them in time of crisis, like in this case the child can depend on her employer and expect her to fill the gap created by her parents. Identity crisis, lower self-perception, and withdrawal are also observed as common behaviors. (Ã¢â¬Å"Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectÃ¢â¬ ) To intervene to the crisis, the assessment of the situation is the key point. Every individual or family responds to certain situations differently. Still it is necessary to assess the risk of abuse in the given situation. To assess the crisis it is required to consider each member of the family individually as well as the part of the family. Listening to each memberÃ¢â¬â¢s version of the crisis individually may help reach the root of the problem. Active and careful listening is the most important criterion of the crisis worker while assessing the crisis. Identifying the underlying problem and precipitating events, observing family interactions and conditions and determining the family needs carefully help assessing the risk to the family members accurately. The safety measures can be practiced accordingly especially for children. A few screening instruments may be helpful in this respect, namely, Child Abuse Potential Inventory, Child Maltreatment Interview Schedule, Family Assessment Form (FAF) and few Family Risk Scales. Training to use all such instruments can be very helpful for the crisis worker. Before terminating the service the crisis worker should be very sure that the risk factor has been removed completely and the child or other family members are totally safe. All family members should be involved in each and every step of crisis assessment and intervention. Non-judgmental and open-minded crisis worker helps the family best in crisis assessment and intervention. S/he must understand the social customs and family traditions and must convince the person or family in crisis that s/he came to listen to their problem and to help them in coping with the situation and not to accuse them. Lack of understanding or acceptance at either end may lead to more complicated circumstances. (Blakester) For successful crisis intervention the crisis worker first needs to understand the crisis thoroughly and needs to be competent enough to provide expert support to the victims. Crisis intervention is time limited. Therefore the crisis worker needs to set specific goals to make the intervention as a success. Like in the present case it was not possible to solve all the family problems, which were the root causes of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s crisis at a time. So the crisis worker should prioritize the problems to be solved. The worker can first try to make good rapport with the girl and the family of the girl and listen to the problems carefully. The family first needs to understand that their child is facing a crisis due to their behavior. This may help the girl as well as her family to accept his/ her intervention to solve the crisis. S/he can try to find out their actions to deal with the situation. The worker can try to find out the strength of the girl that can improve her self esteem and her needs which need to be taken care of. Her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s potentials and requirement need also be assessed. The reasons behind the crisis can then be chalked out. Once the reasons are established, the worker can suggest alternative approaches which can motivate the child and her family to overcome the crisis. The crisis worker can then help them with the formulation of goals, objectives and actions based on their priorities. The actions must be achievable at first to increase the confidence of the family. To be successful the worker needs to be focused but at the same time compassionate and flexible to slight changes in goals. In this case, the family can first stop the physical abuse of the child. Then they can try to improve interpersonal relationship by listening to what the girl has to say. If possible they can help her with her needs and if not then try to make her see the reasons peacefully. They can spare her a little time for her education. Simultaneously, the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s father needs counseling to cope with his bad habit and be able to support his family. As the crisis worker finds the situation to improve s/he can reduce support slowly and observe the family if they can continue with their own. Follow up must always be done to motivate them to work positively. (Ã¢â¬Å"Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectÃ¢â¬ ) An event of successful crisis intervention in a child abuse case can be cited to conclude the discussion on a positive note. Windale in the New South Wales Lake Macquarie region of Australia was declared the most socially disadvantaged community of New South Wales in1999. All possible events of child abuse were present in the community. Percentage of child protection was only 1, the worst in New South Wales. (Blakester)Under these circumstances a community centre named Alcazar Centre was established there attached to the local primary school. The community centre initiated programs as below: Ã¢â¬ ¢ parenting classes; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the staged introduction of preschool-aged children to schools; Ã¢â¬ ¢ joint exercise and sociability groups for isolated mothers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ an Aboriginal health service and community nursing; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the identification of talented youngsters and provision of academic extension opportunities; Ã¢â¬ ¢ locally created scholarships and the Department of HousingÃ¢â¬â¢s relocation of some families to make schools more accessible; Ã¢â¬ ¢ the involvement of fathers in making various contributions to the life of the school and a general increased involvement by parents in school life; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a Shop Smart nutrition program; Ã¢â¬ ¢ improved street lighting, enabling safe travel at night, and a Windale Ã¢â¬ËwelcomeÃ¢â¬â¢ landmark, building community pride; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ the sponsorship of school and sporting needs by local businesses With regular work on the above programs Windale Primary School became the model of schools as community centres across whole New South Wales. The Alcazar Centre was given an Award for Excellence by the Director General of the NSW Department of Education and Training. Windale community proved that prevention of child abuse is possible with case specific approach and almost insignificant steps can altogether make the difference. The child protection in Windale community was found to reach 25%, being the best in New South Wales in 2003. (Blakester) Works Cited 1) Blakester, Adam, Ã¢â¬Å"Practical child abuse and neglect prevention (Case Study 2)Ã¢â¬ , Child Abuse Prevention Newsletter, vol. 14 no. 2 Winter 2006, Australian Institute of Family Studies, National Child Protection Clearing House, ISSN 1447-0039 (Print); 1447-0047 (Online), 13 June 2008, < http://www. aifs. gov. au/nch/pubs/newsletters/nl2006/winter. html > 2) Ã¢â¬Å"Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectÃ¢â¬ , U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Gentry, User Manual Series 1994, Circle Solutions, Inc. , McLean, VA, under subcontract No. S-105-89-1730 with Westover Consultants, Inc. , 12 June 2008,
Friday, August 16, 2019
I. Central Problem AGC should find ways on how to revitalize the company from its steady slope into worse conditions. The circumstances of AGC tumbling downhill were already stacked against them; they just werenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware that their strategy during good market economy would not work well against harsh conditions, such as the competition boom and the fall of the undergarment market during the Seventies, which occurred simultaneously. Their condition became so bad their equity shriveled up to half of what it used to be. II. Statement of Objectives To earn back their customers from the competitors appeal as well as earn new ones To design ways to improve the earnings of the company To broaden the target market To use state-of-the-art equipment III. Areas of Consideration Competition is stiff Selling only to one merchandiser (Divisoria) Limited target audience Was not ready for market instability Dependent on company goodwill Production was not flexible enough to effectively craft high quality items Products were limited (white undershirts) Prices were not favorable to the company IV. Alternative Courses of Action (ACAÃ¢â¬â¢s) 1.) Sell some old equipment of the company and buy useful modern equipment. A. Advantages Greater possibility that the company can invest more flexible equipment for improvement of production in company. B. Disadvantages They will find a hard time disposing the old equipment due to its limited functions and the fact that itÃ¢â¬â¢s already old. 2.) The selling of goods should not be limited only to one place. A. Advantages Reach out to potential customers who do not frequent to Divisoria. Expand your target market. B. Disadvantages Will costs more expenses towards shipping, delivery and marketing. 3.) Advertise products in media and print. A. Advantages Create demand for their products. Procure product and brand awareness to the public. Name or brand recall. B. Disadvantages Incur expenses in marketing and advertising. 4.) Introduce products designed for women. A. Advantages Wider audience More customers Greater chance for profit B. Disadvantages Additional expenditures for research and design 5.) Give benefits to middlemen (merchandisers). A. Advantages Increase loyalty from merchandiser. Create a rapport between companies. B. Disadvantages Additional costs 6.) Create products that are trending in the market. A. Advantages More sales Larger target market Variety of products to choose from B. Disadvantages Higher cost in production. Higher risk of putting capital to waste. 7.) Retain Ã¢â¬Å"BlossomÃ¢â¬ in production. A. Advantages Helps the company to gain back profit. Provide lower class citizens with a selection of products. B. Disadvantages Brands Armour & Marca Troca will be further overshadowed. Less profit (same quality but at a lower price). V. Final Decision The final decision is to replace the old notions and infuse the new, while still retaining the quality of the product. Despite the immense hard work put into the company, changes will continue to occur, so a new life for the company would be better suited than if it were to continue its slow downward pace. VI. Detailed Action Plans The first thing that the business needs to do is replace the machines that manufacture their product. The machines are not only inflexible for making garments other than undershirts, but assuming from context; they are old, considering the company up to the liquidation proposition was twenty years old. Although it will need much capital to purchase these machines, in the long haul, it is an investment and it will help them broaden their product lines. A large chunk in the revision of plans situates in the products. In the past AGC, they only produced white undershirts for men. The next step is the development of their product lines. It may start with research on their current and their aspirant customers and products. Expanding the brands include introducing clothing for women, designing high quality and fashionable clothing, and making them in color. The gamble is high because the company has only ever excelled in manufacturing one consistent product, and expanding the product lines need much capital. Another good call for the company is to revive Blossom. That brand, with its good quality yet cheap prices caters to those of lower income levels, which is a potential market to sell to despite numerous competitors in the price war. And although brands Armour and Marca Troca would be overlapped by the potential success of Blossom, through expanding the brands would they be able cater to a different taste and therefore cater to a different audience. This way, the brands under AGC will not be directly competing for customers to buy them. Through good marketing and well maintained production, AGC can achieve high profits from expanding their line. Further action to broaden their target audience would be to advertise AGC. Its namesake and goodwill may definitely draw in crowds, but commercializing it in media and in prints will reach those who have not heard about the company and its brands. This creates demand for the product, and in turn, high sales. An influx of the new is not always a bad thing; itÃ¢â¬â¢s how you respond to change that counts. AGC still has some fight left and with the proper strategy and taking the right opportunities, AGC can still be able to bounce back and regain what was lost. Case Analysis 3-2: Armour Garments Company (AGC) The Armour Garments Corp. (AGC) was established in 1954 in the Philippines as a manufacturer of high quality undershirts. It had two popular brands, namely: Ã¢â¬Å"ArmourÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Marca TrocaÃ¢â¬ . The company started out by copying popular styles and designs from Hongkong. The first ten years was quite profitable. The company grew from 25 workers in 1954 to about 250 workers in 1967. The company sells all of its products to wholesalers in Divisoria who distribute the product all over the country. The products are manufactured in white color only and are generally of superior quality being twice more durable than other brands in the market. Undershirts are worn as a matter of habit to avoid the direct contact of users polo shirts with the body. Product sales are seasonal. Business usually peaks twice a year: in June, with the opening of classes and in December, with the Christmas rush. In the mid 60Ã¢â¬â¢s more and more undershirt factories opened. The company faced serious threats in its operation since the Divisoria middlemen were not loyal to brands. All along, AGC was banking on its institutional pride and goodwill being the pioneer in the industry. While sales of the company did not decrease, it also did not substantially increase with the growth of the population. However, this did not bother management since the cash flow was good. No major investments were made during the period. It was business as usual so to speak. In 1971, the market for the undershirt suddenly took a downturn. It was no longer fashionable to wear undershirts. Moreover, more and more marginal factories sprouted up and were willing to compromise on price and payment terms with the middlemen. For the first time in its history, the company was astounded. It introduced a new brand Ã¢â¬Å"BlossomÃ¢â¬ which was of exactly the same product quality but priced lower to match competing products. It did not take long before Ã¢â¬Å"BlossomÃ¢â¬ was withdrawn from the market because AGC sold more of Ã¢â¬Å"BlossomÃ¢â¬ and less of Ã¢â¬Å"ArmourÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Marca TrocaÃ¢â¬ . Having failed to improve the marketability of its traditionalÃ product lines, the company finally decided to diversify and venture into ready-to-wear business. It introduced a polo shirt line. The market response was not favorable. In 1973, the company added a couple of lines like jeans and printed shirts, these two lines also failed.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
This undertaking work pertains to ; Ã¢â¬Å"GIS based load flow survey for Distribution Network at Sihora townshipÃ¢â¬ . com/aaimagestore/essays/1644095.001.png"> Chapter 1: Introduction In India, Power sector reforms are afoot chiefly to reconstruct efficiency and fiscal wellness in the sector and assorted SEBs have followed common form of reforms based on Ã¢â¬Å"World Bank Supported OrissaÃ¢â¬ theoretical account of ninetiess. Main nonsubjective covered under reforms are ; Unbundling of SEBs in to three separate sectors of Generation, Transmission & A ; Distribution and Corporatization of sectors. Added fiscal encouragement to the reforms procedure came in the signifier of Ã¢â¬Å"Accelerated Power Development and Reform ProgramÃ¢â¬ ( APDRP )and States willing to set about Distribution Reforms are eligible to pull financess in this strategy. Distribution and Use of Power are 3rd and 4th sections of Integrated Power Systems and are unluckily weakest links as compared to Generation and UHV/EHV Transmission of Power because of high proficient and commercial losingss, overloading of Transformers and Feeders/Distributors and mass scale pilferage of power. Power Distribution nevertheless, assumes function of a gross gaining section of power system. Therefore, the existent challenge of reforms in Power Sector lies in efficient direction of Distribution and Utilization sections so that consumers get good power quality. Power Sector Reforms initiated by Govt. of India, peculiarly in Distribution sector, are viewed as strong steps to better commercial and fiscal viability of this sector and the APDRP launched in the twelvemonth 2001 was launched chiefly to beef up Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Distribution Networks and decrease ofAverage Technical and Commercial Losses ( AT & A ; C Losses ) .Main aims of this plan screenConstitution of baseline informations.Renovation and modernisation of 33/11 & A ; 11/0.4 KV Sub-Stations.Decrease of AT & A ; C losingssCommercial viability.Decrease of outages & A ; breaks.Increase consumer satisfaction through beef uping & As ; up-gradation of Sub-Transmission & A ; Distribution web and by supplying good power quality.1.1 Application of Geographic Information System ( GIS ) in Distribution Systems. GIS is a computer- based system to assistance in the aggregation, care, storage, analysis, end product, and distribution of spacial informations and information. Geographic information Systems ( GIS ) and Network Analysis are quickly progressing Fieldss in recent old ages and remain most important application countries. G- Stands for geographic and it has something to make with geographics. I Ã¢â¬â Stands for information i. vitamin E, geographic information. S- Stands for system. GIS is an incorporate system of geographics and information tied together. 1.2ROLE OF GIS IN DISTRIBUTION REFORMS. Distribution is a job country in any Electric Power Supply Utility in India chiefly because the Technical plus Commercial losingss are extortionately high, ( 50 Ã¢â¬â 55 % ) . GIS can assist cut down losingss and better energy efficiency through its part in the undermentioned countries of Distribution reforms: 1. 100 % consumer metering and Automatic Meter Reading. 2. Feeder & A ; Distribution Transformer metering: Installation of inactive ( electronic ) metres on all 11 KV surpassing feeders and distribution transformers. 3. Effective Myocardial infarction: Both feeder and DT inactive metres record active energy, power factor and burden information which can be downloaded to a computing machine web to construct effectual MIS for speedy decision-making. 4. Energy accounting: Energy received in each 11 kV sub-station and 11 KV out-going feeders, energy billed and T & A ; D losingss at each feeder and DT can be decently accounted for. 5. Installation of capacitance Bankss & A ; web reconfiguration: Installation of capacitances at 11 & A ; 400 Volt degrees, reconfiguration of feeder/ Distributors & A ; DTs in such a manner as to cut down the length feeders/distributors thereby cut downing Technical losingss. 6. High Voltage Distribution System ( HVDS ) : Installation of little energy efficient DTs providing power to 10 to 15 families merely, re-conductoring of overladen subdivisions, digital function of the full distribution system and burden flow surveies to beef up the distribution system. 1.3 GIS aid in accomplishing the above aims through assorted applications: 1. Creation of consumer database and consumer indexing: Indexing of all LT & A ; HT consumers, so as to segregate consumers feeder-wise and DT-wise. The consumers are mapped utilizing GIS engineering and identified based on their alone electrical reference, called Consumer Index Number ( CIN ) . 2. Function of Sub-transmission and Electrical Distribution Network: It is every bit of import to hold all the 33 KV substations, 11 KV feeders, DTs and LT feeders digitally mapped and geo-referenced. 3. Load Flow Studies: Having completed the aforesaid undertakings, burden and consumer profiles can be studied and illations drawn for rectifying instabilities in the web. 4. Load Prediction: GIS has proved itself an effectual tool in placing ideal location for proposed Sub-Stations, demand-side direction, Load prediction. 1.4 CASE STUDY GIS has been used as a tool to transport out Consumer indexing and Load Flow Studies for Primary and Secondary distribution Network at Sihora township, near Jabalpur, under the Poorv Kshetra Vidyut Vitran Company ( MPPKVVCL ) and I was associated with this survey. Both these surveies were conducted at the same time. Basic aim was to update consumer informations and program betterment in the Network and to make away with over-loading of transformers and feeders so as to accomplish an acceptable electromotive force profile i.e, to supply all L.T. & A ; H.T. Consumers electromotive force in the scope 6 % . Following stairss are covered in the instance survey ;Field work for placing assets or GPS Survey.Transportation of GPS Co-ordinates to Lat-Lon Co-ordinates utilizing iilwis package.Downloading of orbiter images utilizing Google Earth pro.Alliance of spacial informations.Forming Database.Conducting Load Flow Study.Decision summarises the result of this survey. Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Review 1 Ã¢â¬Å" Application of Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems in Human-centered Emergencies: Lessons Learned, Programme Implications and Future ResearchÃ¢â¬ by Reinhard Kaiser Centers for Disease Control CDC and Prevention ( CDC ) , Paul B. Spiegel CDC, Alden K. Henderson CDC, Michael L. Gerber CDC ( Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA ) . This paper discusses application of GIS & A ; GPS in human exigencies. 2.2 Review 2 International diary onNetwork Analysis in Geographic Information Science: Review, Assessment, and Projections ( Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2007, pp. 103-111 ) byKevin M. Curtin. This documents informs thatNetwork informations constructions were one of the earliest representations in geographic information systems ( GIS ) , and web analysis remains one of the most important and relentless research and application countries in geographic information scientific discipline. 2.3 Review 3 GIS AND NETWORK ANALYSIS ( By Manfred M. Fischer Department of Economic Geography & A ; Geoinformatics Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration Rossauer Lande 23/1 A-1090 Vienna, Austria ) . Writer has described that the information theoretical accounts and design issues which are specifically oriented to GIS-T, and identified several betterments of the traditional web informations theoretical account that are needed to back up advanced web analysis in a land transit context. 2.4 Review 4 Electrical Network Mapping and Consumer Indexing utilizing GIS ( By S P S Raghav Chairman and Managing Director UPCL, Dehradun and Jayant K Sinha Dy General Manager ( IT ) UPCL, Dehradun ) . This paper analyzes the present power scenario and the function of GIS in spearheading the Distribution reforms processes to better the power industryÃ¢â¬â¢s viability. 2.5 Review 5 GIS Based Power Distribution System: A Case Study For The Bhopal City( Dr. Tripta Thakur, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal ) . Asset function utilizing GPS and high declaration remote feeling images has been reported in this paper utilizing Arc GIS 9.1software. Problem Definition The East DISCOM, at Jabalpur identified few townships as pilot undertakings for system betterment where the bing distribution web were- haphazard, shabbily constructed and expanded in an unplanned mode. AT & A ; C losingss were extortionately high runing between 50-60 % . With this in position, the GPS based information was opted to make reliable informations base and transport out the burden flow survey for the web at 11kv degree to obtain electromotive force profile within the prescribed bound of Ã ± 6 % and besides to place low electromotive force pockets. Aims of Thesis.Constitution of baseline informations.Renovation and modernisation of 33/11 & A ; 11/0.4 KV Sub-Stations.Decrease of AT & A ; C losingss.Improvement of Voltage Profiles.Commercial viability.Improved care Ã¢â¬â Decrease of outages & A ; breaks.Increase consumer satisfaction by supplying good quality power supply.Chapter 3:GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) GPS FactsDeveloped by Department of Defence as a military navigational tool.Systems birth was in the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s24 Satellites revolving at high heights ( 11,000 stat mis ) First Satellite launched in 1978Became to the full operational in April 1995Useful dark & A ; twenty-four hours Ã¢â¬â rain or radianceUse of wireless moving ridgesAccuracy depends on unit, some are accurate to a centimeter.There are 3 orbits Ã¢â¬â LEO ( long Earth orbit ) , MEO ( average Earth orbit ) and GEO ( geostationary Earth orbit ) . The GPS system is located in GEO orbit.3.1 Geographic placement system ( GPS ) GPS is a world-wide radio-navigation system formed from a configuration of 24 orbiters and their land Stationss. It uses these Ã¢â¬Å" semisynthetic stars Ã¢â¬ as mention points to cipher places accurate to a affair of metres. These orbiters have really accurate redstem storksbills on board. The orbiters continuously send wireless signals towards Earth. These wireless signals are picked up by GPS receiving systems Figure Ã¢â¬â 1 GPS receiving systems have become really economical, doing the engineering accessible to virtually everyone. GPS provides uninterrupted 3-dimensional positioning 24 hours a twenty-four hours to the military and civilian users throughout the universe. These yearss GPS is happening its manner into autos, boats, planes, building equipment, farm machinery, even laptop computing machines. It has a enormous sum of applications in GIS informations aggregation, surveying, and function. GPS is progressively used for precise placement of geospatial informations and the aggregation of informations in the field. Figure Ã¢â¬â 2 Figure Ã¢â¬â 3 3.2 GPS Control Stations There are five control Stationss that monitor the orbiters. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Control stations enable information on Earth to be transmitted to the orbiters ( updates and all right turning ) . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Control Stationss continuously track orbiters, and update the places of each orbiter. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Without control Stationss, the truth of the system would degrade in a affair of yearss. 3.3 GPS Receivers Ã¢â¬ ¢ GPS units are referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"receiversÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ¢ They receive information ( wireless signals ) from orbiters. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The GPS receiving system is made of three parts ; I ) Satellites revolving the Earth two ) control and monitoring Stationss on Earth and three ) GPS receiving systems owned by users. GPS satellites send signals from infinite which are picked up and identified by GPS receiving systems. Each GPS receiving system so provides three dimensional location ( latitude, longitude, and height ) along with clip taken. 3.4 Three sections of GPS The Space section:The infinite section consists of 20 four orbiters circling the Earth at an height of 12,000 stat mis. High height allows the signals to cover a big country. The orbiters are arranged in their orbits such that a GPS receiving system on Earth can ever have a signal from at least four orbiters at any given clip. Each orbiter transmits low wireless signals with a alone codification on different frequences. The GPS receiving system identifies the signals. The chief intent of these coded signals is to let for appraisal of travel clip from the orbiter to the GPS receiving system. The travel clip multiplied by the velocity of light peers the distance from the orbiter to the GPS receiving system. Since these are low power signals and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t travel through solid objects, it is of import to hold a clear position of the sky. The Control section: The control section tracks the orbiters and so provides them with corrected orbital and clip information. The control section consists of four remote-controlled control Stationss and one maestro control station. The four remote-controlled Stationss receive informations from the orbiters and so direct that information to the maestro control station where it is corrected and sent back to the GPS orbiters. The User section:The user section consists of the users and their Global positioning system receiving systems. Number of users can hold entree at any minute of clip. 3.5 Working of GPS When a GPS receiving system is turned on, it foremost downloads orbit information of all the orbiters. This processes, the first clip, can take every bit long as 12.5 proceedingss, but one time this information is downloaded, it is stored in the receiving systems memory for future usage. Even though the GPS receiving system knows the precise location of the orbiters in infinite, it still needs to cognize the distance from each orbiter it is having a signal from. That distance is calculated, by the receiving system, by multiplying the speed of the familial signal by the clip it takes the signal to make the receiving system. The receiving system already knows the speed, which is the velocity of a wireless moving ridge or 186,000 stat mis per second ( the velocity of visible radiation ) . To find the clip portion of the expression, the receiving system matches the orbiters transmitted codification to its ain codification, and by comparing them find how much it needs to detain its codifi cation to fit the orbiters code. This delayed clip is multiplied by the velocity of visible radiation to acquire the distance. The GPS receiving systems clock is less accurate than the atomic clock in the orbiter, hence, each distance measuring must be corrected to account for the GPS receiving systems internal clock mistake. Figure Ã¢â¬â 3 3.6 GPS Terminology 2D Positioning: In footings of a GPS receiving system, this means that the receiving system is merely able to lock on to three orbiters which merely allows for a two dimensional place hole. Without an height, there may be a significant mistake in the horizontal co-ordinate. 3D Placement:Position computations in three dimensions. The GPS receiving system has locked on to 4 orbiters. This provides an height in a add-on to a horizontal co-ordinate, which means a much more accurate place hole. Real Time Differential GPS: Real-time DGPS employs a 2nd, stationary GPS receiving system at a exactly measured topographic point ( normally established through traditional study methods ) . This receiving system corrects any mistakes found in the GPS signals, including atmospheric deformation, orbital anomalousnesss, Selective Availability ( when it existed ) , and other mistakes. A DGPS station is able to make this because its computing machine already knows its precise location, and can easy find the sum of mistake provided by the GPS signals. DGPS corrects or reduces the effects of:Orbital mistakesAtmospheric deformationSelective HandinessSatellite clock mistakesReceiver clock mistakesDGPS can non rectify for GPS receiving system noise in the userÃ¢â¬â¢s receiving system, multipath intervention, and user errors. In order for DGPS to work decently, both the userÃ¢â¬â¢s receiving system and the DGPS station receiving system must be accessing the same orbiter signals at the same clip. Figure Ã¢â¬â 4