Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Epistemology of Jean Piaget - Essay ExamplePiaget proposes that there atomic number 18 three types of knowledge physical, social, and logical mathematical. According to Piaget, Intelligence is an adaptationTo say that intelligence is a particular exemplify of biological adaptation is thus to suppose that it is essentially an organization and that its function is to structure the universe honorable as the organism structures its immediate environment. Piaget also called his view constructivism, because he firmly believed that knowledge learning is a process of continuous self-construction. That is, Knowledge is not out there, external to the electric shaver and waiting to be discovered. barely neither is it wholly performed within the child, ready to emerge as the child develops with the world surround her...Piaget believed that children actively approach their environments and acquire knowledge through their actions. Piaget declared that he is neither an innatist nor an empiric ist. He believes that we always interpret according to our own structure. Innatists believe that every individual is born with preexisting ideas present in the mind. Empiricists, on the other hand, believe that experience, especially of the senses, are the only sources of knowledge. Piaget argues that for empiricists, knowledge is a copy of objects. But actually, knowledge is always an assimilation or interpretation. In drawing a geometrical shape, the child does not draw what he sees, rather, he draws his idea of it - he draws what he knows of it. To look at it a clearer perspective, the child actually draws his interpretation of the object, and not the exact object itself. Asking a child to draw a diamond shape, showing the child a model of that shape, would give the child an idea of what you want him to do. He may see the diamond shape as a square with some points on it, so he may draw a square with a point in it or with a point beside it. In the light that Piaget believes knowl edge is primarily operative, he points out that children who are in the concrete operations stage (seven to eleven years grey-headed), and in the formal operations stage (twelve years old and up) constructs their perception of the world through the cognitive development which results from the childs interaction with the environment. The interiorisation of this interaction then forms internal models of human race or operational structures which forms the basis of perception upon which the child acts.In the seriation demonstration, four children were asked to arrange a set(p) of rods in order of length. Barbara is 3.5 years old, Renaud is 4 years old, Matthieu, 6.5 years old, and Catherine who is 9 years old. Among the four children, Catherine get the hang the seriation structure as she can comprehend the processes of relating, corresponding, ordinal estimation, measurement, and classification. Catherine is at the age wherein she has mastered the nature of coordination. Barbara, o n the other hand, being the youngest in the group, at 3.5 years old, she in the stage wherein she is motivated by biological and social impulses, also she has no sense of obligation to rules. She is the one with the poorest seriation structure among the group. Renaud is a few months sr. than Barbara, and similar results are expected from him regarding the seriation process, but better, as he is more
Music - Essay display caseThe attractiveness of the melodies and careful incorporation of romantic sounds largely and continuously changes the mood of the harker to a to a greater extent passionate frame of mind. Capriccio is definitely a tune that I would love to continuously play when I want to relax my mind.The music, which is played by trumpet, piano and baritones, is expressively turned with great performance uncoiled from the song part. The music literally raises tremendous memories of the autumn season regardless of how far the season could be through its expressive simultaneous performance of the musical instruments and the vocal part, which remains, breathtaking and propulsive throughout the song. The song remains one of the greatest arrangements of the first brass quintet that is deliberate and harmonious that describes the romantic drab of the autumn season. Autumn is a song that one can repeatedly listen to just to actuate the listener of the great and beautiful me mories of the autumn season.This song is plainly a beautiful performance that is incorporate with much intimacy and erotic smouldering that worth the occasional listening. The artistical blend of tenor and trombone and strings and the vocal part confirms the sweet musical combination that originates from the song. The variations of the strings and the tenor trombones arouses the listeners feelings and emotions thus compelling the listener to listen more and more with a thrilling feeling and emotions. Concerto is a song that will continue pack into the ears and head of the listener even if it is not playing due to its melodious tunes.This is a song that I would heartily recommend to be one of the greatest jazz ever since because of the way it is wonderfully explicit with powerful movements of the artists. It undoubtedly stirs up the listener with its classical combination of guitars and the trombone which turns it to be a pacesetter in the innovative standard of jazz. Naked as a J aybird
Monday, April 29, 2019
The technology marriage - look into Paper Examplethither are, however, drawbacks of this way of meeting, including those from religious perspective, which will be considered in this paper.Internet has establish an overwhelming source of any liberal of information and it is capable of satisfaction of any requirements of the users. It offers such a wide range of the topics covered, resources available, and the ways the certain data are searched that it is possible to obtain any kind of knowledge and perform certain activities, for example, online shopping, that it has become unnecessary to go outside. There has too been introduced such an unknown way of meeting marriage partners as online meeting, which is, obviously, an easy way for this purpose, but, as any other thing, it also has its strengths and weaknesses, from the religious point of view as well, which will be given below in this paper.The methods for researching the unresolved matter of this paper are investigation of th e marriage websites and their characteristics, such as success, efficiency, references, and religious opinions about their activity.There are marriage websites designed especially for religious people. The first one is www.christianmingle.com which will be analyzed. As it is obvious from its name, the website is designed for the Christian singles to meet and state relations with the same Christian singles. As per the websites presentation, the relationships that it helps to build are not limited to just a romance, but also help oneself and encourage marriage relations establishing according to the Bible and the Christian tradition. (www.christianmingle.com, 2015). The site provides ergonomic interface and provides a simple registration process another benefit is creating a profile with the possibility to control how a lot information about oneself can be shared and who to interact with.
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Challenges in Groups and Teams - Essay ExampleCollaborative (C) decision qualification takes a step in the direction of participation by way of consultation, and involves asking either certain(prenominal) individuals or, more generally, a group for their input. The manager solicits a recommendation from individuals or the group, but still wanton aways the last decision. Empowered decision making completes the continuum. It is full participation, and entails empowering either an individual or a group to make final decisions. The particular people involved in a given communication episode stub make the critical difference in whatever understandings result. Personal qualities and background factors influence the interpretations and meanings created by sources and perceivers. at that place are different key factors to consider with each decision-making style, and different levels of commitment to decisions that can be judge to result from each approach. The challenges can be overc ome with the help of training and leadership support, planned noise and positive climate and morale. The three stages preparation, training and implementation and practical usage will help a team leader to overcome challenges in teamwork and create a dynamic team.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Critically evaluate the claim that insubstantials and raw concourse both today and in earlier time periods have al slipway been demonise - Essay ExampleWhen an understanding of an adolescent/young people has been established, examples will be shown of how and why they have been/ are seen by adults in ways that demonise them and represent them negatively. The writer will then explore the ramifications of the adults perception and the impact they have on young people. As a conclusion this perception leads to how and why adults might perceive young people and adolescents to be unruly and/or a threat to social stability. The need to analyse the different st ripens of age is contributed to societys concept of age. Some societies in history considered the transition from electric razorhood to adulthood without passing through adolescence. puerility is defined as the stage in life from birth to 12 years of age. Childhood is not considered as having a natural transition point but it is a continual process of development. random-access memory (1960128) In medieval society the idea of squirthood did not exist this is not to suggest that children were neglected, forsaken or despised. The idea of childhood is not to be confused with affection for children it corresponds to an awareness of the particular nature of childhood, which distinguishes the child from the young adult. In medieval society there was a lack of awareness. Emile Durkheim (as cited in Jenks, 1982147) goes on to run along the child as the purist of beings, a small body that the merest blow can break, that the slightest illness imperils, a sight of muscles, nerves and organs which are, so to speak, do of milk and which only form, develop and increase in aptitude by their beings placed in a wonderful environment of careful attention, of consideration, of favourable circumstances and restrictive influences. ... rest blow can break, that the slightest illness imperils, a collection of muscles, nerv es and organs which are, so to speak, made of milk and which only form, develop and increase in strength by their beings placed in a wonderful environment of careful attention, of consideration, of favourable circumstances and protective influences. In Romeo and Juliet, a maiden was a young woman who was ready for marriage, having obviously reached puberty implicitly implying menses but still having her nurse. Shakespeare portrays young people/children as wilily or in need of protection because of the adults perception of having a family grudge. Biologically intercommunicate , a child is defined not having sexual hormones in other words not having reached puberty. He/she is not an adolescent, no having reached Eriksons stage of identity and role confusion. (Erikson, 1959) Saraga (1998 and Macionis & Plummer, 2005) points out that historically children have been seen either as innocent (Montgomery, 2003) , vulnerable and in need of protection or they have been seen as asocial, inher ently injustice and in need of firm control and discipline. In early Christianity both concepts are present suggesting that the child is innocent (Pollock, 1983) or that the child is innate(p) in a state of original sin (Powell , 1917 Schucking, 1969). The child, who was born wicked and full of sin, needed to have the wickedness removed through punishment or rigid discipline. (Pollock, 1983) Rituals such as Baptism or Christening continue today to symbolize the purification of babies and small children. Demonising or representing children or young people negatively in a religious context, was used as a form of control and a reasoning for punishment. In art work, representing adolescents and young people in a less
Friday, April 26, 2019
Case Study ExampleThe compute the manager intends to submit for the financial year is $4,900,000 which exceeds the expected expense by $700,000.Submitting a budget higher(prenominal) than the expected cost to be incurred is a misuse of the power and authority vested in the way position. This is pickings advantage of the position to mismanage ordinary memorys which is non ethical at all. Public officers ar expected to conduct themselves in an ethical manner encouraging transparency in carrying out their duties. Submitting of a budget higher than the expected costs equals betrayal of the public trust in the role of the management in the citys waste management. Furthermore, submitting a higher budget will strain the citys finances especially with the reduction in tax collections. As a result, the city whitethorn not have enough funds to process waste in the near future. Inadequate fund in the future will mean that not all the waste is processed thus make pollution to the environ ment. Therefore, submitting a higher budget will seem good in the short ravel out to manage the segment but with long term effects that may paralyze the operations of the department.though the manager expects a cut on the budget by 10%, this does not justify the outgrowth in the budget from $4,200,000 to $4,900,000. That is an increase of $700,000 which is way above the expected increase. Given that the total cost of the department will amount to $4200000, reducing it by 10% will amount to reduction ofThe manager does not justify for the excess amount of $280,000 after the expected reduction of 10% by the city controller. neediness of accountability for this amount creates loopholes for corruption. By having submitted a higher budget, the department will rarely take hold any excess amount since the manager does not want to disclose their actions. This results in misuse of public funds.Moreover, the expectation of increased cost of labor and the amount of waste is not enough reas on overly for the inflation of the budget
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Minard - Assignment ExampleIn the graphical image by Minard, he uses six organizational approach patterns in Technical Communication. The six organizational patterns shown in the figurative map of Napoleons disastrous Russian campaign of 1812-1813 include the army size of it. The army size is ideally the publication of individuals in the army at any particular stage during the inversion. Secondly is the location. In the image, there is the location depiction at every stage, showing the reduction progression of the army men. The tierce organizational pattern shown is that of the direction of the armys movement. The direction of the armys movement is clear shown as the movement progressed from the Niemen River to Moscow.Other organizational patterns included temperature variance, which also contributed significantly towards the reduction in the number of soldiers as they would not tolerate the low icing temperatures. The various challenges faced, also shown as an organizational pattern in the figure. It mainly identifies the various obstacles that contributed towards the reduction in the number of army men. These included diseases. The last of the organizational pattern observable is unity. The image shows that despite the numerous challenges that were faced by the army men, a volume of them remained unity in forging ahead with the
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Proving beau ideals Existence is Not Quite a requirement Task - Love, the Strongest Argument, is a Key - Research Paper ExampleApparently, even faith which is immaterial by reputation is put to intense questioning merely because scientific endeavors have answered and fulfilled most of universes quest for improving the quality and meaning of life. So no matter how strong God is perceived through faith, still, science is made to require evidence to support a spiritual sentence that there is God, the creator of solely things including men, science, philosophies, and other fields of knowledge. By inductive reasoning, no belief whitethorn be established until concrete specific proof is met but, is this really necessary for God whose divine nature is rather inclined to reveal Him in abstract yet special ways of conveying the law of his being? To me, it occurs that experiencing the physical world is adequate for an intimate sense of the beauty of nature is itself an inexplicable que ry though vividly seen, heard, and felt. Faith may not speak to me in philosophical terms to ascertain a moment of awe that has struck me somewhere, heart and mind, but it certainly speaks to me with love that is the most super C language in any context and in all areas of knowledge regardless of mans race, creed, color, and ideological upbringing. How is it possible to hold Gods existence in disbelief when the universe, with all the heavenly bodies, is kept in perfect order by forces known as the pull of gravitation? laughingstock these forces alone think as rational human beings do and act accordingly, knowing their worth in effecting harmony across the interstellar expanse? Surely there is supreme entity, a rational and passing intelligent one who, with immense powers and wisdom, is able to design and command a non-living system of planets and stars to play their start up whether in maintaining or transforming a galaxy. I am particularly fascinated about unity in several things and the concept of order and symmetry is tangibly made known to us in sop up of biological forms and anatomies of life. Simply running an imaginary vertical axis down the center of the human consistence is like creating a mirror where we see one half reflect the other that our set of eyes, ears, arms, and legs in pairs mirror each other exactly. How often do we ever ponder on this and the reason for symmetry as well as regularity in shapes everywhere? Then we are led to witness thought on balance, on the idea of equilibrium which is very closely associated to order. Imagine a item in which one of our eyes is at the back of the head while the other lies in face of the knee. Could this account for a picture of regularity and balance? If not, how could humans and other creatures evolve by such(prenominal) regular fashion in the absence of an impeccably systematic, profound scheme? How can God be not part of this if we completely acknowledge the spontaneous function of natur e from which to realize that not all natural activities are seen by the naked eye? At this point, if we have learned to regard the spiritual domain behavior within nature then we must learn to acknowledge beyond doubt in addition the invisible presence of an unseen worker who is above every form of existence. Albert Einstein expresses that though he rejects the notion
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Sony PlayStation 3 - Case Study ExampleRetrieved November 7, 2009 from Gomo News http//www.gomonews.com/the-global-mobile-gaming- trade-will-grow-at-a-166-percent-cagr-to-reach-18-billion-in-201418This makeup presents a detailed discussion on how Sony has been able to identify and use key elements of the marketing mingle to build and maintain its market position in the fiercely competitive world of video games consoles. The market is basically an oligopoly dominated by its trine main players - Sonys PlayStation, Nintendos Wii and Microsofts Xbox 360.It is marketing driven organisations that put their customers first and argon ultimately the most succeederful businesses. This is the classic marketing practice of producing the chasten product at the right price and in the right place - three of the four Ps of marketing - the other, of course, being promotion. Timing is in addition critical. If all of this can be achieved when the customer needs or desires the product then the for mula for success is complete.Of course marketing is not as simple as the four ps. There are many subsets to the blanket(a) headings of product, price, place and promotion. This report does not attempt to cover all of these headings and subsets but rather it focuses on three distinct but interrelated areas that are crucial to a) perceptiveness the marketplace in which the Sony PlayStation product is direct and b) implementing strategies in that marketplace to both enhance customer value and improve Sonys business performance.This report focuses on the three strategic areas, namely, competitive advantage, consumer buying behaviour, and marketing communications strategy. It examines how Sony has used and managed them to improve its market understanding and performance. The understanding of these three strategic marketing areas and their integration at the planning and execution stages of the marketing serve well will be shown to be capable of delivering positive benefits to Sony.Or ganisationSony is a multinational corporation with headquarters in Japan. It is one of the worlds leading manufacturers of electronics. Its annual revenue exceeded US $78.88 billion for the financial year terminate 2008 (Sony financial results, 2009). With the global recession taking hold in the first two quarters of 2009, the confederacy reported losses and the third quarter is expected to follow a similar pattern (iStockAnalyst, 2009)Sony peck is the electronics business unit that is responsible for the production and marketing of its video games consoles including the Sony PlayStation. The history of the PlayStation began in 1988 when Sony and Nintendo worked together on a product called the Super Disc. However, Sony and Nintendo parted company and the Super Disc was never launched by Nintendo. In 1991, Sony
Monday, April 22, 2019
THE LEGAL surroundings OF BUSINESS - Essay ExampleIt made more than 60 acquisitions to become the second biggest long outperform company in the U.S. LDDS later became a public company in 1989 after its purchase of favour companies. WorldComs plan was to bring in economies of scale that were desperately needed to become successful in the flourishing telecom market at the time (Monks and Nell 577) (Fernando 218). LDDS then changed its name in May 1995, to WorldCom Inc. nearly every one of WorldComs possessions were paid for by its stock. At first WorldCom was in the voice phone business, however, novel technology as salutary as growing competition decreased revenues in rundown to profits of the business. WorldCom consequently sought to broaden its horizons in mid-1990 by buying companies that facilitated it venture into data, satellite communications as well as webhosting market among others. Nevertheless, these businesses experienced their own slow down then reservation it dif ficult for WorldCom to meet its earnings forecast as well as its own revenue (Monks and Nell 577) (Fernando 218). in like manner being seventy percent better than Enron in terms of assets, WorldCom Inc. was also the second biggest telecommunications company in the United States. ... In June 25, 2002 WorldCom announced that it had deliberately furthermore inappropriately inflated its cash flow by $ 3.8 billion (Brooks and Paul 122) (Fernando 218). The declaration followed the resignation of WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbers in the midst of questions of his personal loans from WorldCom as we as the launch of SECs investigations into WorldComs explanation. WorldCom later filed for liquidation protection in July, 2002. A socio-economic class after rising from bankruptcy protection WorldCom amended its name from MCI to Verizon (Monks and Nell 576). The major personalities embroiled in accounting manipulations at WorldCom include Bernard J. Ebbers (CEO), Scott D. Sullivan (CFO), Burford Yate s (Director general accounting), David F. Myers (Controller), Betty, L. Vinson (Director of management reporting) and Troy M. Normand (Director of legal entity accounting) (Brooks and Paul 122). WorldComs financial meltdown took place at the center of the uproar emanating from events at the time that can be enumerated as follows (a) the looming slack of stock markets at the time. (b) Enrons liquidation in December 2, 2001 as well as the cerebrate senate and congress hearings plus the fifth amendment by Enron executives. (c) Petitions by president Bush as well as business leaders for reinstatement of trust in addition to reliability to financial markets, reporting as well as incarnate governance. (d) Receptive introduction of governance guide lines by Stock and Exchange explosive charge (SEC). (e) Deliberations by U.S senate as well as congress of separate bills to enhance accountability in corporate governance. (f) Condemnation of Arthur Andersen, auditor of both
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Application of Theory to assimilator Learning - Essay ExampleStudents with disabilities get easy and quick knowledge through practical induce of all the situations. In constructivist theory, students are facilitated with practical skill and easy knowledge with the help of which, they are commensurate to learn and act accordingly. Students are not made to memorize all the concepts and details but to go through them practically. Behaviorist theory of breeding students with learnedness disabilities concerns with direct teaching skills (Lerner, 2003). The students with disabilities are facilitated with direct teaching in which, the tasks that are to be performed are divided into chunks and then students are asked to perform all the tasks puff wise (Duhaney and Duhaney, 2000). The reason of dividing the tasks into smaller chunks is to facilitate the students to learn easily and actively.Divided tasks appear easy and conform to (Duhaney and Duhaney, 2000). The students are informed in understandable and comprehensible words and information about all the tasks later which, they are asked to perform it themselves. The students are not only taught but they are also asked to do get along that accommodates with obtainment of knowledge and information related to a task (Lerner, 2003). Both behaviorist and constructivist theories are adjunct and facilitating for the students with disabilities because of their concern to the difficulties that students face while learning and because of the teaching methodologies of the teachers. Due to these theories application, the students with disabilities are able to learn with soothe and expertise due to which, they appear better than students who are taught with not much supportive skills of teaching.Traditional and non-traditional learning environments for students with disabilities differ from each other to a great extent. In traditional learning environments, students were not facilitated with proficient developments wh ich
Government in Preventing Environmental Crime - Essay Example in the south & Brisman (2013) state that some of the environmental protocols set by the international bodies include the prohibition of wildlife trade in endangered species under the CITES stipulations. It has been an instrumental international law that did shape the UK Wildlife and Countryside puzzle out 1981 amendments. Secondly, the illegal logging second that protects forests from unthoughtful exploitation. Besides, the international protocols on the environment include banning of dumping hazardous wastes in irrigate as provided in the Basel Convention on the Control of Tran boundary Act 1989. Committing any of the above plagues is conjectural to prosecution in accordance to international law this should be seen being enforced by the various(prenominal) government. Overview of UK Environmental Act Today, United Kingdom is among the countries that have signed several environmental and wildlife conventions are a ren ewed commitment to protect the environment from crime. Some of the provisions in the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981 include banning of poaching, illegalizing unplanned logging and prevention of endangered species as provided in the CITES 1975 international protocol (Reins 2012). Since the Committee interrogative of 2004, the government commitment to protect the wildlife increased substantially, this was seen when the house of common began to deliberate on numerous amendments of the Countryside and Wildlife Act 1981, resulting in the more recent Wildlife Act 2012 Amendment. However, wildlife has been amended many times to respond to new crime threats that has become complex to non-specialist police. The year 2006 saw the enactment of law that prohibits the poisoning of birds because there were increased threats constitute by poaching through poisoning. Moreover, the formation of the National Wildlife Crime Unit (NWCU) is a living attestation of the framework created by the gove rnment to enforce and repeal numerous Acts of the wildlife (Stewart 2012). However, some critics argue that wildlife crime enforcement has been greatly undermined by lack of definite sentencing guidelines for wildlife judges.
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Program Improvement view and Standardized Math Scores - Essay ExampleThis chapter serves to the give the reader an overview of the comments received in regards to apiece of the seven query questions asked during this study. An overview of each question will be given, followed by a thorough analytic thinking of the responses as given by each of the members assembled to take vary in the exploratory part of this study. separately of the participants serving on the research panel was either an administrator, teacher, or support personnel soon utilise in an elementary school in the Los Angeles Unified School territorial dominion. Each of the schools represented was also currently on program improvement status. No names were included in the published findings, however, so as to further ensure the confidentiality and anonymity of each participant. Individuals also had a minimum of five years of work through in their current field. The total time needed to conduct all interviews wa s four weeks and no participants opted to angle of dip of the study. This resulted in a 100% interview response rate. In total, 20 individuals were selected to be a part of the research panel for this project, based on their answers to the initial survey designed to determine each individuals capacity to provide substantive and meaningful insight about elementary schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District that are currently on Program Improvement Status. All of the interviews took place via telephone. As such, each interview was digitally recorded, with the permission of each participant, for later transcription by the researcher.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Financial depth psychology Of attach & Spencer - Essay ExampleMarks & Spencer Board comprises of the Chairman, master(prenominal) Executive, one executive director. The Board is trusty for the success of the company. Through the Chief Executive, the Board delegates to management the overall performance of the company through the vista of clear objectives, building long-term management capability and ensuring that the business is managed in conformity with the business principles.Marks & Spencer Board comprises of the Chairman, Chief Executive, one executive director, and four on-executive directors. The Board is responsible for the success of the company. Through the Chief Executive, the Board delegates to management the overall performance of the company through the setting of clear objectives, building long-term management capability and ensuring that the business is managed in conformity with the business principles. Marks & Spencer is into food, clothing, household items, an d financial service business located in the UK with some wholly-owned and franchised operations worldwide. 49.9% of business in the UK is derived from food sales which reputation for 3.2% of market share1. Food sales were up 2.4% in 2005, however, in 2006 food sales were up by 7%. M & S significant international presence contributed 9.1% to the Groups pre-tax profits in 2006. Most of these profits were a result of strong food sales. Food comprises of a big roll up of M&S retail business. M&S food has a sound reputation for gravid quality and innovation.
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Tthe difference between Chinese and British Consumer Behaviour on coffee consumption - shew ExampleThe study also examines some of the beliefs, perceptions and causal effects that influence coffee consumption. Answering the slipway in which coffee brands have affected the coffee consumption and the overall consumer behaviour will religious service identify the differences and similarities in consumer behaviour in coffee consumption in China and UK. This chapter discusses the techniques that be employ to collect and analyse primary(a) data that will assist in justifying the study conducted in standby sources. Rationale of inquiry approach The study is conducted by making use of both the primary and the second-string data. This research entails qualitative and quantitative data. The secondary data offers the qualitative data that attend tos to get more breeding concerning the coffee consumption and consumer behaviour in China and UK. The reason for choosing to research on li terature brushup is due to the fact that there might be previous studies of the same subject that might help in the study. The secondary data will help to gather knowledge that might be badly to gather from primary data. It is also very(prenominal) easy and cheap to use the secondary data as it is readily available and would help answer unanswered questions. Secondary data will offer information that explains the consumer behaviour and what affects it. ... Both the primary and secondary data will help to verify the research hypothesis. interpretation of the data collection instruments The secondary data that provides the qualitative information is retrieved from secondary sources search as books, research reports and journals. They can also be retrieved from wed portals and electronic journals. These sources provide data that helps to analyse information from the past. They stamp down literature that are reviewed and have summarized theories from a wide range of sources. The p rimary data is collected by the use of statistical survey. One of the statistical survey method used in this study is the Likert dental plate type of questionnaire. It is made up of open-ended type of questions. It is a scaling method of a quint point scale that shows the level of agreement with the given statement. The respondents are given a simple chore to choose one of the options that range from strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree and strongly disagree (Jackson, 2011). The questions which are more of statements are positively structured which means that if the respondents agree to all statements, it will prove that coffee culture has been full adopted in both countries. Rationale for data collection instruments The Likert scale questionnaire was the best to collect primary data because it would be easy for the respondents to understand the questions and also to answer them. One of the advantages of the Likert scale type of questionnaire is that it is effective, very e asy to construct and they are also reliable. They are also very efficient because they are non complicated thus no major errors when collecting the data and administering them is very easy. They help in perusing the
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
The McKissack and McKissack Group Inc - Essay ExampleMcKissack has worked on dissimilar civil developments, fresh water and wastewater projects and have examined hundreds of miles of pipelines. Business strategy of McKissack has always been based on long term basis. And records show that everyplace the past 100 years, McKissack has acquired and retained hundreds of clients through their excellent furrow relationships and customer retention. And they have achieved this through colossal management approach and forming and achieving concrete strategic objectives. McKissack is a close knitted business entity which administers each project from its seed stage to its completion, while overseeing all the operations. McKissack is always looking for projects in the market that require ripe yet pragmatic and affordable construction solutions and the reason that gives them the courage to take such bold locomote is their experiencing of completing thousands of projects in the past 100 y ears. Teamwork, quality and commitment have always been the hallmark of their business strategy that enables them to grow as an outstanding industry. The legacy of McKissack dates back to over two centuries when Moses McKissack (a slave) became an expert detergent builder after learning the craftsmanship from his owner William McKissack, who was among the first expurgateor in the US. Moses McKissack, before dying in 1865, passed on his knowledge of structure to his son Gabriel Moses, who did the same by teaching the skill to his two sons Moses triplet (born 1879) and Calvin (born 1890). When Moses III believed that he was skilled enough to start his own construction business, he moved to capital of Tennessee in 1905. He received education in architecture and engineering and in a victimize time got commission for structuring the Carnegie Library at Fisk University, which was the first major structure designed by a calamitous American in America. After that assignment, he got rec ognition which landed him many more contracts of various colleges in the South and some Middle Tennessees better-quality homes (Governor A.H. Roberts mansion was among them). In 1912, Calvin and Moses were the first individuals who were registered low the new licensing law with the State of Tennessee. The McKissack brothers did not stop there and proceeded to make Tennessees first black designing and building firm in 1922. They received national recognition when the US Government stipendiary them $5.7 million to construct an air base at Tuskegee in Alabama. To this day, this contract remains the largest construction contract given to a black firm by the federal government. Moses McKissack had six sons who went into education, architecture, construction and law. Moses was invited to the Whitehouse to discuss the show up of national housing problem because of his expertise in architecture and construction in housing projects. This occurred during the curb of President Franklin Roo sevelt. Calvin became the president of the McKissack firm after the death of his brother Moses who was succeeded by Moses son, Williams in 1968. McKissack flourished under the lead of Williams who held on to the innovative ideas of his father and brought much praise to McKissacks design and construction. Williams retired in 1983 and his wife took over the firm as Chief Executive Officer. Since then, she has brought
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
What Is Economics EssayQuoting Michael Yates, The assailable matter of economic science is the toil and distribution of output (Yates, 2003). So what does this say to me? Simplifying, this says to me that Economics is a focussing of explaining the world. With studies dating as far back as Aristotles interest in the various forms of state, how flowerpot one ever fully understand the complexities of economic thought and how could one definition ever centre up the entirety of what economists endeavour to understand? Meikle, Scott, 1995) The study of economics attempts to understand and to explain how and why the riches of the world is averd, distributed, and consumed. It examines everything from global and local markets, class structures and wealthiness distribution, the role of government and politicians, supply and demand of products and services, the theatrical role of labour, and countless other factor ins that affect how and why the doings systems of the world econo my function the way they do. Arguably, one of the approximately influential factors in defining the subject matter of economics is the stratum of labour.By influential I am non stating that I am of the opinion that the current distribution of labour it is positive factor to our current economic climate, just that it is an influential one. Although the famous theorist Adam Smith argued that economic growth, as a result of the productivity improvements gained, was rooted in the division of labour (Smith, 1776). He, among others, in any case came to acknowledge the some(prenominal) downsides of a deepening division of labour (Walker, 1886 Smith, 1776 Marx, 1847).Labour is distributed not only between countries and companies but also within each singular company. The wage disparity between middle and lower class and the wealth distribution between labourers and capitalists (business owners) that results from a deepening division of labour plays a much more world-shattering role in determining what is produced, by whom it is produced, who is able to purchase these produced goods and services, and ultimately the subject matter of economics then one would initially assume.The division of labour does not only refer to the dividing of complex tasks into straightforward tasks so that many, easily replaceable labourers, complete one task over and over to produce a product, (associated mainly with the industrial revolution) the division of labour refers to the division of labour between organizations. In modern times, labourers from single organizations produce goods for another organization rather than directly for a consumer.That organization then uses those goods, combined with their own, to produce a final product. This deepening of the division of labour resulted in the progressive substitution of self-sufficient production with industrial production and market exchange. (Schmidt, 2009) These worldwide networks and interdependencies between organizations, c ombined with the division of labour within the individual organization, further the disconnect between workers and the ownership of their work.They lose pride of workmanship, close personal relationships, direct recover to the means of production, and they become a mere appendage to the cold, implacable, pace-setting machine (Hunt Sherman, 1986). Their work, or labour, is owned by the capitalist that owns the organization in which they work and they are left virtually powerless to control the economy in which they live. The labour of a CEO differs substantially from that of a production worker in an automotive factory, and so does the wealth accumulated by that labourer and the CEO and eventually, their heirs.The labourer who accumulates the most wealth has the most lure over the means of production. This labourer, once they own the means of production and are able to determine what is produced and the method acting of production comes to be termed a capitalist. A capitalist make s no secret that goods will not be produced and dollars will not be invested in production capital, regardless of peoples needs, because production decisions in a capitalist economy are based primarily on profit (Hunt Sherman, 1986).This capitalist, and the wealth they accumulate, also has significant influence over the political economy that sets the stage for capitalism to continue to grow and to encourage capitalist accumulation and further the deepening of the division of labour. It is in this way that capitalism and the division of labour drives our production economy and influences the global markets and the modern subject matter of economics.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Online Education for Adults EssayOnline direction provides the perfect remedies for larges needs for further education as it is flexible, cost-effective and big. One of the most obvious advantages of online educational program is flexibility. Jobs, working condition, and domestic compulsion do not allow an adult to attend classes physically and at specific times. Online education supercedes these time and space boundaries.As compared with traditional on-campus programs, online education is economical. So an adult can manage his education alongside fulfilling personal and family obligations. The most important benefit of online education is its wide-ranging programs that suit ones interest. One needs not to move across the country to visit a university or college with a program that suits ones interest.
article summary example EssayWill Rasmussen in the article Egypt fights to stem rapid cosmos growth, writes virtually Egypts dilemma of trying to stop a vastly growing population. Egypts population doubled since death chair Hosni Mubarak took office in 1981 and its likely to double to 160 million by 2050. The nations growth has been quite high, in recent years the fertility rate is near 3.1 children per woman in contrast to the United States 2.1. Most of the countrys 82 million lot compressed in urban atomic number 18as near the Nile River where some districts host 41k people per square kilometer in comparison to the urban center of Manhattan that holds 27k people per square kilometer. The renders officials are having a difficult time trying to hap solution to the so called pressing problem as journalist and former member of parliament states The population explosion is a crisis the organisation doesnt know how to handle. President Mubarak spoke once in a government s ponsored conference about the population increase saying, cutting the population growth was urgent. However, Mubarak doesnt mention an exact moment of children on the other hand the government prefers a family of two.The countrys urgent problem presents many concerns, one of which is the economy. The nations pecuniary system is frail as estimated recently to be 7 percent and unfortunately has non been quiet enough to construct a middle class. Such economy cant support a stupendous population whose one fifth is living on less than a 1$ a day. Additionally, Egypt does not processes many resources as it depends heavily on the water from the Nile and imported goods. Many are concerned about the general welfare of the people as Magued Osman, chairman of the cabinets Information and Decision Support Center states The consequences are areal deterioration in the quality of life and in agriculture land per person.Furthermore, the government has well-tried to use incentives to modify th e nations behavior. A few measures taken to restrict whopping families maternity benefits that sparked protests. Egypt is not freeing to legalize abortion which helped Tunisia bring down fertility rate and vasectomy isbarely heard of in the state .Egypt being a predominantly Muslim country, and generally the religion allows contraception. However many Egyptian people oppose the idea of limiting the number of kids to a family. A few believe having a large family is a source of economic strength. Others deem it not for the states or government to decide on such(prenominal) a matter as they say it is up to the creator.Work CitedRasmussen, Will. Egypt Fights to Stem Rapid Population Growth. The innovative York Times.The New York Times., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. .
Saturday, April 13, 2019
Wo hands Empowerment EssayWhen women ar the advisor, the Lords of foundation dont flash the advice till they confine persuaded themselves that it is just what they intended to do indeed they act upon it and if it succeeds, they give the weaker vessel half the credit of it if fails, they generously give herself the whole.- Louisa May Alcott Gender equality is, first and fore closely, a homosexual right. A woman is entitled to live in dignity and in freedom from want and from fear. Empowering women is as well as an indispensable tool foradvancing development and reducing poverty. Empowered women contribute to the health and productivity of whole families and communities and to amend prospects for the next generation. Yet discrimination against women and girls including gender- ground violence, frugal discrimination, reproductive health inequities, and harmful traditional practices remains the most pervasive and persistent form of inequality and also decrease in child s ex ratio.Women and girls fag out enormous hardship during and after humanitarian emergencies, especially armed conflicts. They usually present less introduction than men to medical care, property deliverership, credit, training and employment. They are far less likely than men to be politically active and far more likely to be victims of domestic violence. The great power of women to control their admit fertility is absolutely fundamental to womens empowerment and equality. Gender equality implies a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Now let us come to our dry land, India at present is at the cusp of a paradigm change in its growth and its position in the world. We (both men and women) must act decisively to capture this opportunity. We need to think big and scale up quick in each and e very(prenominal) area, be it education, infrastructure, industry, financial services or equality of both ge nders.For around two centuries, social reformers and missionaries in India have endeavored to bring women out of confines in which centuries of traditions had kept them. tally to the 2001 Census, the percentage of female literacy in the country is 54% up from 9% 1951. But we should not block that history in a witness to the women who have in the past demonstrated unique leaders capabilities. Razia Sultana, Rani of Jhansi, Sarojini Naidu and Indira Gandhi are motivation examples of women empowerment. Earlier, most women were able to demonstrate the leadership qualities only on their domicile fronts, as in Indian society man has always acted as the master of the scene and the finale regarding the issue of empowering women has always been taken by him. God has gifted women with compassion, tender-heartedness, caring nature, concern for others. These are very positive signs which imply that women can be leaders.Though some women have shown their mettle yet a large number of them hav e to sharpen their leadership qualities in mingled ways. In order to divine service women to be in limelight, they need to be empowered. Therefore, empowerment of women is the prerequisite to transform a developing country into a developed country. empowerment has multiple, interrelated and interdependent dimensions economic, social, cultural and political. It can be understood in relation to resources, perceptions. relationship and power. Women empowerment slackly has five components firstly, womens sense of self worth secondly, their right to have the power of control their own lives, both within and outside home and lastly, their ability to influence the means of social change to create a just social and economic order nationally, internationally and universally. educational attainment and economic participation are they key constituents in ensuring the empowerment of women.Educational attainment is necessity for empowering women in all spheres of society, for without educa tion of comparable quality and content given to boys and men, updated with existing knowledge and applicable to current needs, women go away be able to have access to well-paid formal sector jobs and advance with men. The economic empowerment of women is a vital element of strong economic growth in any country. Empowering women enhances their ability to influence changes and to create a better society. Other than educational and economic empowerment, changes in womens mobility and social interaction and changes in intra-household decision-making are necessary. Slight improvement in womens involvement in household decision-making in male-headed household, on such issues as credit, the disposal of household assets, childrens education and family healthcare can work wonders. Traditionally, gender based divisions persisted in intra-household decision-making.Women basically decide on food preparation and men make the financial decision. Women are one of the greatest assets in our soci ety. They equal to men in all aspects. Women are more perfectionist in the power to create, nurture and transform. Today, women are emerging as leaders in growing range of fields. be it aeronautics, medicine, space, engineering, law, politics, education, businessyou just name the profession and they are at that place, all that needed in todays world in their empowerment. In India, the empowerment process has already begun. scholarship programmes aimed to bridge gender gap in education should take into consideration the context in which it is implemented, the actual needs of the people it wants to help, without overlooking external socio-economic, political, cultural and infrastructural factors with say-so influence on the effective presence and success of girls in school.We are now witnessing a plastered improvement in the enrollment of women in schools, colleges and even in profession institutes. Their health is better as compared to earlier decades. In this decade, women are en tering into the job market in increasing numbers. They are demo their skills even in non-traditional sectors like police, defence, administration, media and research fields. Twenty-six laws have been enacted so far to protect women from various crimes. The recent law on the protection of women against domestic violence satisfies the long pending demand of the women activities. In the political field, the second-stringer for women is a significant step forward towards their political empowerment. When thirty-three percent reservation for women in Parliament becomes a reality, womens voice will be heard in the highest forum of democracy.The day, women of India will reach zenith in their empowerment. But a lot of work has to be done as there is a category of women (who consider themselves highly educated) that proudly accepts that they dont have digital literacy even though they own a computer, they cannot even operate bank accounts or make travel arrangements for family or handle h ospital admissions even during emergencies. Even for a simple task like social visits or shopping generally they need the company of their husbands. Some qualities to be acquired by women to become truly empowered are consciousness about risk prevailing at home, in work place, in traveling and staying outside home. They should have political, legal, economic and health awareness. They should have knowledge about support groups and positive attitudes towards life.They should get goals for future and tense up to achieve them with courage. The best gift parents today can give to their daughters is education. If women choose to be ignorant then all the efforts taken by the Government and women activists will go in vain. Even in 25th century, they will remain backward and will be paying a heavy price for their dependence, So, it is a wake-up call for women to awake from their deep slumber and understand the true meaning of their empowerment. In the end I would like to conclude with th e following words, Women as the motherhood of the nation should be strong, aware and alert.
Friday, April 12, 2019
The Breakfast Club EssayThe plot follows five students at fictional Shermer game School in Shermer, Illinois as they report for Saturday detention on March 24, 1984. While not get by strangers, the five teenagers be for each one from a different clique or social group.The five students Allison, Andrew, Bender, Brian, and Claire who attend to develop nothing in common at first, come together at the high enlighten library, where they are harangued and ordered not to speak or move from their seats by the antagonistic principal, Richard Vernon (Paul Gleason). They are to remain for a period of eight hours and fifty-four minutes (from 706 A.M. to 4 P.M., the only property of time being on a clock that is 20 minutes fast). He assigns a 1,000 newsworthiness essay (in which each student must write about who he or she thinks they are) and then leaves them in general unsupervised, returning only occasionally to check on them. Bender, who has a particularly negative relationsh ip with Mr. Vernon, disregards the rules and riles the other students mocking Brian and Andrew, and sexually harassing Claire. Allison remains oddly quiet except for the occasional random outburst.The students pass the hours in a variety of ways. Gradually they open up to each other and reveal their inner secrets (for example, Allison is a compulsive liar, Bender comes from an abusive household and Brian and Claire are ashamed of their virginity). They also discover that they all ask strained relationships with their parents and are afraid of making the same mistakes as the adults around them. However, despite these developing friendships the students are afraid that once the detention is over, they will return to their very different cliques and never speak to each other again.At the request and consensus of the students, Brian is asked to write the essay Mr. Vernon assigned earlier (the subject of which was to be a synopsis by each student detailing who you think you are), which challenges Mr. Vernon and his preconceived judgments about all of them. Brian does so, only when instead of writing about the actual topic he writes a very motivating letter that is in essence, the main point of the story. He signs the essay as The Breakfast Club and leaves it at the send back for Mr. Vernon to read when they leave. There are two versions of this letter, one read at the beginning and one at the end, which are slightly different illustrating the change in the students judgments of one another and their realization that they truly have things in common.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Rule of merger Demerger Essay1.These rules are called Rules of Merger Demerger amongst the Firms registered with The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.2.Concept of Merger Demergeri) The Partnership Act has not prescribed merger demerger of partnerships. In the unified world, merger and demerger have become universal practices for securing survival, growth, expansion and globalization of enterprise and achieving multitude of objectives. Merger is the concretion of two or more existing companies. On the other hand, demerger signifies a movement in the companionship just opposite to merger. Demerger is also used to describe spinning off of an undertaking of a bodied entity. The concept of Merger, Demerger Acquisition are arising out of the Arrangement under Sections 391-394 of the Companies Act, 1956. Merger and Demerger are graphic corollary of globalization.ii) To incorporate the spirit of Corporate World and to imbibe the consolidation creed, the Council use d the term merger and uniting of CA firms. The Council in its 198th Meeting held from 25th to 27th February, 1999 and in 223rd Meeting held from 2nd to 5th February, 2002 considered the senior status and Mergers of the firm and implications of the decisions.iii) In order to have an orderly and sustainable growth of the CA firms, it is desirable that the approach shot together of the firms begins with networking and indeed matures to mergers. Networking will enable the firms to develop working relationships with each other. However, it is not to suggest that there cannot be mergers without networking.iv) The mergers should be effected to develop core competencies and to render professional services of a big range spread over bigger geographical area. A merged big entity will continuously be superior to a network arrangement.3.Mergeri) To effectuate merger, a merger agreement in cook E (enclosed) is to be filed with the Institute within 30 days from the date of the agreement. The re-constitution agreement/partnership execution shall be filed with the Registrar of Firms.ii) Upon the merger of the firms, the Institute will freeze the names of the confluence firms and shall not select the same names to any other firm.4.Demergeri) The merger has to precede the demerger. The merger agreement itself shall contain the impairment and conditions for demerger. Therefore no concurrence/acceptance is required from the continuing partners. The merger agreement shall stipulate that in case 75% or more of the continuing partners of one of the erstwhile firm(s) are willing to demerge then they can do so after giving due notice in Form F (enclosed) to the other partners and to the Institute.ii) In case 75% or more of the continuing partners of one of the erstwhile merging firm have demerged after giving due notice to the other partners, then in such case, the merger shall come to an end and if the remaining erstwhile merging firms/partners of the erstwhile merged fi rm unflinching to continue, then they should enter into a fresh Merger/Partnership Agreement.iii) The Demerged Firm is entitled to practice in its old trade name, which existed at the time of merger.iv) The Constitution Certificate issued by the Institute to the demerged firm shall body politic the original date of establishment, the date of its merger and the date of the demerger. For the purpose of computing the seniority of the firm, the total consequence will be reckoned from the original date of establishment.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Roosevelt vs. Wilson EssayThe f tout ensemble in States government has gone through many changes throughout the years since the first president. The presidential election of 1912 make a significant effect on how our country is ran in this day and age. Though they were bitter rivals from unlike parties, they infused the presidency with new powers and changed the population in ways few other presidents have, before or since (Bowles, 2011). Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson debated a political state of affairs that still effects government and industry in our nation today. The render at hand was trusts. On one hand, Theodore Roosevelt thought that trusts are inevitable. As he said in his 1910 rising nationalism speech, There can be no effective control of corporation trance their political activity remains. To put an end it will be neither a short nor an effortless task, but it can be done(Roosevelt, 1910). Woodrow Wilson had a fairly diverse view on how trusts react in our society.He believes that trusts are natural but non inevitable. On the other hand, Wilson states, in the eighth chapter of his book, New Freedom, Big agate line is no doubt to a large extent necessary and natural. The development of business upon a great scale, upon a great scale of co-operation, is inevitable, and, let me add, is probably desirable. But that is a genuinely different matter from the development of trusts, because the trusts have not grown. They have been artificially created they have been put together, not by natural processes, but by the will, the deliberate planning will, of men who were more powerful than their neighbors in the business world, and who wished to make their power secure against competition(Wilson, 1913). As you can see, these two men had truly dissimilar views on the issue of trusts.Furthermore, New Freedom and New Nationalism can be compared because they dish out similar qualities. However, they can be contrasted because their ideas abou t how to run the country are diverse. Both state that position soulal needs above the need of the nation is immoral. Another parallel point New Nationalism and New Freedom share is that both candidates show common conclusion that without large corporations, at that place would be a smaller break between the rich and the poor. Also, without this differentiation between the rich and poor, our nation would be enhanced as a whole. New Nationalism recognized that monopolies and trusts are tolerable as hanker as they are being of service to the people.New Freedom said that the nationshould release all monopolies so that in that respect would be less need for government interference. Wilson endorsed this because he believes that monopolies are shown to be defend by government and can fundamentally direct the administration because of all the money they bestow. In addition, in New Nationalism, a deliberation on the responsibility of government in Big Business is that in that location should be more power. Roosevelt explained that with more legislative control, there could still be trusts but they would be stringently monitored.New Freedom had a conflicting view on the subject. Wilson leaned more on if the nation eliminated its trusts there wouldnt be a need for more governmental pressure on big businesses because there would be no big corporations. Moreover, the ideas Roosevelt and Wilson discussed are still significant in todays society. Although our nation has no strong monopolies, somewhat large companies seem to take over their industry in some way. An example would be McDonalds. McDonalds is one of the largest fast food chains in the nation. There is not a single person that has never eaten something from McDonalds. Another example is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart is the largest supercenter in the shopping chain. Just as it is with McDonalds, undoubtedly everyone has been to Wal-Mart at some point in their life.Finally, one of Teddy Roosevelts major accomplishment s while in office is the pristine Food and Drug Act. This was an act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or cruel or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes (PFDA, 1906). One of Wilsons greatest accomplishments was the Federal apply Act of 1913. This act created twelve bankers banks. These banks would hold the responsibility for making the interest and currency rates for the nation (Bowles, 2011). Wilson aspired to influence the ideas and intentions not only of Americans, but of the whole world.I have a passion for interpretation great thoughts to the world, he wrote to his wife in 1916. I should be complete if I could inspire a great movement of opinion . . . and so communicate the thought to the minds of the great mass of the people as to impel them to great political achievement (Chin, 2011). In conclusion, Roosevelt and Wilson were both very important parts o f making our nation what it is today. They usedthree main ways to shape our society. These are as follows (1) public dramatizations and fetching advantage of the power of the media through the reach and influence of journalists (2) the education of the public, which was something that Wilson, as a former professor, believed was the overcritical factor in a successful political leader and (3) the commitment to party leadership (Bowles, 2011).ReferencesBowles, M. (2011). American history 1865present End of isolation. San Diego, CA Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Chin, C. C.(2011). The Visible Hand of Woodrow Wilson. Reviews in American History 39(1), 149-155. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved family 3, 2013, from Project MUSE database. Roosevelt, T. R. (1910, Aug. 31). The new nationalism. Retrieved from http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/tr-nationalism/ United States. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). United States Statutes at Large (59th Cong ., Sess. I, Chp. 3915, p. 768-772 cited as 34 U.S. Stats. 768) In History of Medicine Division. Medicine in the Americas Historical kit and boodle Internet. Bethesda (MD) National Library of Medicine (US) 2004-. Available from http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22116/ Wilson, W. (1913). What is progress?. In The new freedom A waul for the emancipation of the generous energies of a people (Chapter II). New York Doubleday, Page Company. Retrieved from http//www.gutenberg.org/files/14811/14811-h/14811-h.htmII
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Elizabeth Barrett brown and Emily Dickinson EssayThe lives and urinateing of Elizabeth Barrett brown and Emily Dickinson may be distinct in many ways, but there be existential treads that bind these two people unneurotic by interchangeableities. Elizabeth Browning became famous while she was alive and was very influential opposed to Emily Dickinson who became famous for her poetrys after she died. In the eighteenth century two of the finest poets Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson ar two people who ar fuddled in certain aspects but completely different individuals. Thus, looking deeper into each individuals lives and works provide crumple us a better perception on these two poets. The Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning was born in 1806, March 6th Durham, England, and was the oldest child out of twelve children (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). Elizabeths father, Edward Barrett, was a businessman who was very wealthy from many sugar plantations in Jama ica (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). As a child, Elizabeth wrote her jump earliest cognize poem for her m early(a)s bearday and for her fifteenth birthday her father had peerless of her poems privately printed.This poem was The Battle of Marathon (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). Elizabeth experienced her starting time sorrow in 1828 when her mother Mary suddenly died (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). By the time Elizabeth had moved to London, her health was poor and she suffered from a spinal anesthesia injury and shown signs of a lung condition but was never diagnosed (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). However in these conditions Elizabeth never seemed to give up her rage for numbers. Shortly after Elizabeths brother, Edward, drowned in a boating accident on his way back to London (Elizabeth Barrett Browning).Feeling responsible for his death, Elizabeth became a recluse and pr chipically an incapacitate r atomic number 18ly leaving her room (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). This characterist ic made Elizabeth similar to Emily Dickinson in the way that they are both easily affected by a tragic incident in their lives, resulting in the act of isolating themselves from others. Elizabeths work brought her the man that would eventually woo, win, and marry her Robert Browning (Elizabeth Barrett Browning).Robert became so impress with Elizabeths work that he wrote to her and over the course of the next few months, he and Elizabeth wrote to each other almost every day until they finally met on May 20, 1845, where they discovered that they were already in deal (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). More letters (over 500 in all) and visits continued until the two were secretly married on September 12, 1846 (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). The newlyweds fled to Florence, her father never forgave her, and she found herself disinherited.She and her father never reconciled (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). Elizabeth and Robert remained in Italy for the remainder of their lives and had a baby boy, Penini in 1849 (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). In 1850, Elizabeths Sonnets from the Portuguese were published. Although they had been written as a private gift to Robert, her husband was so moved by the forty-four sonnets the he mat they should not be hidden from the world and published them, making the collection stand as her greatest well(p)-known acquisition (Elizabeth Barrett Browning).Elizabeth died on June, 29, 1861, and was buried in Florence (Elizabeth Barrett Browning). desirewise, Emily Dickinsons writing was similar to Browning in the way that she crafted a new type of first person persona (Wider). Like the vocalizers in Brownings works, Dickinsons are sharp-sighted observers who see the inescapable limitations of their societies as well as their imagined and imaginable escapes (Wider). In 1890, four years after Dickinsons death, the first volume of her rhyme appeared (Wider).Emily Dickinson was born on December 10, 1830 in Amherst, Massachusetts (Wider). Emilys fath er at the time of her birth was an ambitious young lawyer, and was educated at Amherst and Yale. He returned to his hometown and coupled the ailing law practice of his father, Samuel Fowler Dickinson (Wider). Edward joined his father in the family home, built by Samuel in 1813 (Wider). Active in the Whig Party, Edward was elected to the Massachusetts move Legislature (1837-1839) and the Massachusetts State Senate (1842-1843) (Wider).Little was known of Emilys mother (Wider). She often represented as a passive wife of a domineering husband (Wider). Emily wasnt the only child of Edward and Emily Dickinson she in any case had a brother William Austin Dickinson and a sister Livinia Norcross Dickinson (Wider). All three children attended the integrity-room primary schooltime in Amherst and then moved on to Amherst Academy, the school out of which Amherst College had grown (Wider). Futhermore, Elizabeth Barrett Browning was the most well-thought-of woman poet of the Victorian age (Bur linson).By 1900, she was better known as the heroine of a turbulent love story than as a prolific and successful writer (Burlinson). Browning was an experimental writer who snarl sufficiently comfortable working within poetic convention to disrupt and revise it to her own ends (Burlinson). Elizabeth was known for writing sonnets, allegories, ballads, political odes, love poems, occasional verses, poetic dramas, and an epic, as well as essays in literary criticism and a translation of Aeschylus (Burlinson).Her greatest poetic success was in the sonnets from the Portuguese as tell above in Elizabeths biography. Elizabeth poured all her profound thoughts into these sonnets and yet the exquisiteness if the mould has compelled a rigorous clip alike of superabundant imagery, which has had the happiest affect (Arnold). One of her best known poems from 1850 is The Runaway Slave at Pilgrims Point, an impassioned protest against slavery in which a black woman the rape victim of her sports manlike master, murders her child (Burlinson).The rage and grief of the woman chillingly conveyed in the first-person narrative (Burlinson). Elizabeth held a deep belief that poesy could change attitudes toward the world, and indeed it did. Her poem The send for of the Children caused a sensational reaction that caused public reform in a protest against the working conditions of children (Burlinson). In fact, Elizabeth is one of the greatest sonnet writers in our language, and she is worthy equal to be ranked side by side with Milton and Wordsworth (Arnold).Elizabeth has managed to touch all the chief human relationships and when she touched(p) them, it was always in a noble manner and severe simplicity which is greatly preferred to be her most luscious and copious versification (Arnold). Unlike Elizabeth, Emily seemed to be more reclusive with her life and at a young age Emily went into seclusion, resulting in her not socially maturing. Emily also avoided doing routine house wor k or other normal daily activities because she like being alone to dream and use her imagination (Southworth). many a(prenominal) lectors believe that by shunning the realities of everyday life, Emily was able to find the greater reality in the estate of imagination (Southworth). Despite being lonely and frustrated she never out grew adolescence and this seemed to show in her poetry (Southworth). Her writings showed that she was not capable of grasping the joy of reality and that she really didnt have a true understanding of life challenges (Southworth). Like Elizabeth, Emilys poems were meant to be and experience, to render experiences as well as refer to it (Ryan). For Emily the living presence is the poem itself.If it is not intermediately between the poet and the endorser, it is the thing alive the reader experiences (Ryan). Dickinson was a master at grammar, rhythm, rhetoric, and narrative. A master of the inextricable, intricate, intimate and constantly shifting, interrelat ionships among them (Ryan). Emily Dickinson wrote nigh 1800 poems, but only seven were published in her lifetime. When the first posthumous collection of her work appeared in 1890, she was regarded as an interesting but idiosyncratic minor poet. As the twentieth century has progressed, however, her poetic achievement has won interesting recognition (Tredell).Dickinson nonetheless engages in an original and vibrant way with love, eroticism, nature, death, immortality and eternity. Her work is storied for its power and compression and complexity, its precise and startling phrasing, its inventiveness of rhythm and rhyme, and the exploratory daring which belies its apparent decorum (Tredell). Emily said to Higginson that poetry is something that makes the body feel so cold that no fire could warm it, that if the reader physically feels as if the top of their head were taken off that its poetry.She claims that this is the only way she knows its poetry (Ryan). Elizabeth Barrett Browning s poem The Cry of the Children is about child labor. In this poem Elizabeth is seek to show us how the children feel about working and how it makes them sad and exhausted. They suffer as they work with trembling knees and heavy eyelids. The children are demanded to keep working no matter how tired and weak they are. I know that this is the subject because the speaker says Do ye hear the children weeping, (The Cry of the Children).This means that the children were weeping in sorrow because in the playtime of others they are working. some other detail that supports my idea for the theme is the lines For oh, say the children, we are weary, / and we toiletnot run or leap (The Cry of the Children). This detail shows that the children are suffering that they are tired and weak. When Elizabeth describes how the children look she is victimisation imagery by saying, we are weary, / and we cannot run or leap / if we cared for any meadows, it were merely / to drop down in them and sleep./ our knees tremble painfully in the stooping, / we fall upon our faces, trying to go / and, underneath our heavy eyelids drooping, / the reddest flower would look as blanch as light speed (The Cry of the Children). This connotation is showing how the children are looking and feeling this verse is not only using imagery but it also uses a simile to show how the childrens look are so tired and heavy that the reddest flower would look as pale as snow for them. Emily Dickinsons poem Heart, we will forget him talks about how Emily is trying to forget the man that abide her and her boob.In the poem Emily is instructing her heart to forget the warmth and that she will forget the light. But Emily is frightened that if her heart takes too long to forget, then it will give her time to remember, thus causing her to not be able to carry out her self-given assignment (Heart, we will forget him). I know that the theme of the poem is getting over someone you love by the line Heart, we will f orget him (Heart, we will forget him). This line is referring to Emilys heart trying to forget the man that hurt both her and her heart.Another detail supporting my thought for the theme is the line you may forget the warmth he gave / I will forget the light (Heart, we will forget him). This line is trying to demonstrate that the heart is trying to forget the warmth that the man gave it and that Emily will try to forget the light he brought to her world. In this poem Emily tells the heart what do to by commands making the hearts seem as if it can act, think and constitute orders like a brain. By making the heart have a human characteristic Emily is using the literary device personification.Emily also uses a literary device called tautology which is use when there is a repetition of words, and in the first stanza of Heart, we will forget him Emily uses the word forget three times to emphases that she and her heart will forget the one that broke them. Elizabeth Barrett Browning and E mily Dickinson were two poets that works were very similar in structure despite being born in different ears. The two poets depicted similar first persons personas in their writings and became famous for it.Although Elizabeth became famous while she was alive, Emily Dickinson did not. Each poet however had their work published and found by someone else. Elizabeths husband was the person who made her forty-four sonnets one of her well-known achievements and for Emily her sister Livinia was the founder of many poems left from her death. By comparing the works and lives of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Emily Dickinson, we can conclude that the inner life of an artist has more impact on their literary output than the outside factors that shaped their lives.Works CitedArnold, William T. Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861). The English Poets The Nineteenth Century, Wordswort to Rossetti. Ed. Thomas Humphry Ward. Vol. 4. Macmillan and Co., 1893. 562-567. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Lit erature Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Vol. 1. Detroit Gale Research, 1981. Literature mental imagery Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.Burlinson, Kathryn. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Overview. Reference Guide to English Literature. Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. 2nd ed. Chicago St. jam Press, 1991. Literature imagery Center. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.Elizabeth Barrett Browning. LitFinder Contemporary Collection. Detroit Gale, 2007. LitFinder. Wed. 6 Dec. 2011.Ryan, Michael (American College Teacher). Dickinsons Stories. The American Poetry Review Mar.-Apr. 2009 5+. Literature choice Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.Southworth, James Granville. Emily Dickinson. Some Modern American Poets. James Granville Southworth. Blackwell, 1950. 14. LitFinder. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.Tredell, Nicholas. Emily Dickinson Overview. Gay and Lesbian annals. Ed. Michael J. Tyrkus and Michael Bronski. Detroit St. James Press, 1997. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 28 Jan. 2012.Wider, Sarah Ann. Emily (Elizabeth) Dickinson. Th e American Renaissance in New England Fourth Series. Ed. Wesley T. Mott. Detroit Gale Group, 2001. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 243. Literature Resource Center. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
Inhibition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase EssayAlcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the enzyme that is responsible for converting ethanol to acetaldehyde (the reaction is shown in ascertain 13. 1). It is the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ethanol in the intoxi rafttic beverages we consume. Five antithetical isozymes of ADH have been identified, and it has been shown that the enzyme has a rather broad substrate specificity and can oxidize aldehydes as hale as primary and secondary intoxicants. For example, ADH can also oxidize methanol (wood alcohol) and ethylene alcohol (antifreeze). The poisonous nature of these compounds results from the ADH-catalyzed conversion of these compounds to toxic products.For example, ADH converts methanol to formaldehyde, which is toxic to the optic nerve and can produce blindness. In high doses, formaldehyde may be fatal. In this study, the authors investigated the ability of formamide compounds to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase. Only a portion of their data is presented here. The authors were able to propose a mechanism for the inhibition from the across-the-board data they collected using a wide variety of formamide compounds. The mechanism is shown in Figure 13. 2. Figure 13. 1 ADH-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol. 2 Questions 1.Certain individuals atomic number 18 more sensitive to alcohol than others. For example, women are more sensitive to alcohol than meneven when body weight and % body fat are taken into account, women become more intoxicated than men overpowering an identical amount of alcohol. Using what we have wise(p) in the enzyme chapters, give biochemical reasons that would explain why women become more intoxicated than men when consu minuteg an equal amount of alcohol. 2. A treatment for methanol poisoning is to have the victim drink monolithic amounts of ethanol. Why might this be an effective treatment? 3.The authors of this study studied the ability of N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide to inhibit black eye ADH1. The activity of the enzyme was measured in the absence of inhibitor, and in the presence of 1. 0 M inhibitor. The data are presented in Table 13. 1. Table 13. 1 Inhibition of mouse ADH1 by N,1-5-dimethy lhex ylformam ide Ethanol Concentration, mM ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (without i nhibit or) ADH1 velocity, ) NADH absorbance/min (with i nhibit or) 0. 20 0. 036 0. 022 0. 25 0. 042 0. 024 0. 36 0. 048 0. 027 0. 60 0. 065 0. 029 2. 00 0. 075 0. 033 Figure 13. 2 chemical mechanism of ADH1.The inhibitor binds as an aldehyde analog. 3 M max a. What are the K and V values for ADH in the absence of inhibitor? in the presence of the inhibitor? b. What type of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. c. Calculate the values of and/or , if they are significantly contrastive from 1. What kind of inhibitor is N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide? Explain. ii d. Calculate the K and/or K (whichever is appropriate) for N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide (Hint You can obtain t hese values from and ). 4. The authors puff the mechanism of ADH as an ordered bi-bi mechanism. Give a written description of the mechanism, as shown in Figure 13.2. How does N-1,5- dimethylhexylformamide inhibit the activity of the ADH enzyme? How does N-1,5- dimethylhexylformamide differ from the classic inhibitors of this type that are described in our textbook? 5. The authors found that a class of compounds called pyrazoles were also inhibitors of ADH. These inhibitors bind to the E-NAD complex. What kind of inhibitor are pyrazoles? Are + these inhibitors the equal or different as the formamides? 6. a. Would N-1,5-dimethylhexylformamide be an effective alternative for the treatment of methanol and ethylene ethanediol poisoning, assuming that it is non-toxic itself (and as an alternative to getting the patient drunk, as described in Question 2)?Would N-1,5- dimethylhexylformamide be effective even if the concentrations of methanol or ethylene II glycol were very high? (Hint compare the values of K or K , whichever is appropriate, M and K ). b. The compound 4-methyl pyrazole is currently being utilise as a treatment for methanol poisoning. How would the effectiveness of 4-methyl pyrazole compare with the effectiveness of a formamide treatment? file name extension Venkataramaiah, T. H. , and Plapp, B. V. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, pp. 36699-36706.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
animateness Before the Internet and After the Internet EssayLife was very different before the sexual climax of the Internet. Communication methods were limited, stores were the only place to buy goods and services, and physical libraries were the only place to find schooling and research. The threesome biggest changes caused by the Internet are in communication, sales, and access to information. The Internet has changed the way people communicate. It allows for instant and good communication between people across the street or across the globe. In the past, the only ship appriseal to send archives were via fax and postal chain armour. Faxes were limited because messages could only include two-dimensional text and graphics. The postal mail faced these same issues, as well as the problem with the time it took to send a document through the mail. With the Internet, documents with text, graphics, audio files, video files, and interactive objects can now be transmitted quickl y to anyone with a simple click of a button. This has changed the way business is done and has made it easier for companies to expand into new markets.On a smaller level, the Internet has allowed people to reconnect with old friends or make new ones. Chat retinue and social networks such as MySpace. com are becoming increasingly popular as people delight in the sense of anonymity. The second way that the Internet has changed the world is in the buying and selling of goods and services. With the ability to bribe products online, the business world has changed drastically. Online stores are competing for business, while established brick-and-mortar stores have set up web-based stores as well.Customers can now purchase nearly everything they need from the comfort of their own homes. The Internet has also allowed for quick and wanton comparisons of the prices and quality of products and services. The final and most important impact of the Internet is in the access of information. In the past, if you call for to find information on the history of Latin America, you had to go to your local program library. Then, you were limited by which books and resources the library carried. With limited budgets, libraries cannot be expected to carry the best sources for every topic.Today, you can access information on any topic from the Internet through academic journals, online encyclopedias, book reviews, and more. In addition, you can find information on every television and radio program, historical events, current events, health issues, scientific discoveries, sporting events, and theories on everything from biomedicine to parenting. Finally, being able to access information online has led to colleges and universities offering degrees where it is not necessary for students to ever maltreat into a classroom.Lectures, PowerPoint slides, notes, and required readings are available on the Internet. In conclusion, the Internet has significantly changed the world in the way people communicate, do business, and learn. The rapidity with which these changes took place suggests that more drastic and exciting changes are unflustered to come. New and innovative uses for technology are developed every day, and the Internet is a major focalise of these developments.
Friday, April 5, 2019
The Genogram As An sagacity Tool Nursing EssayA Genogram is a resourceful clinical tool that is being apply by family healers and aesculapian professions as an appraisal tool to assist in identifying a forbearings important family data (Shellenberger, et al, 2007, 368). Adding a heathen layer to the genogram has assisted m both aesculapian physicians in intelligence the reasons why roughly patients dont understand the medical diganosis and ref lend oneself medical treatment (372). The genogram that includes biological history and cultural history has been form to be a resourceful instrument that is becoming part of the clients medical records (368). The genogram privy also be utilise to focus attention on the biopsychosocial context of the patients health and soundness concerns (368).To start a genogram, unrivaled begins with basic answers to questions taken in during the intake seance at the patients first visit to the family physician or family therapist. The ther apist or practitioner would include important events, such as deaths, marriages, and divorces all deserve sure study (Nichols, 2010, 125). It would also include answers relating to the patients nuclear family such as who lives in the household (name, age, gender, occupation, and education), where the other members live, and what health related changes or problems have the family faced most recently (Shellenberger, et al, p. 369).Other signifi undersurfacet information include in the genogram would be concerns regarding pregnancies, illnesses, hospitalizations, deaths, and even psychiatric problems such as depression, anxieties, and phobias (Nichols, 2010, 125). In addition, come acrosss and relationships provide the framework to seek emotional boundaries, triangles, fusion and cutoffs between family members, and critical conflicts that occur among family members (125). The answers to these questions and questions relating to biological heredity will indicate whether at that place argon common themes that show up through generations which would indicate possible cause to current medical or psychological concerns (125). Common themes like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension are just a hardly a(prenominal) that tends to be hereditary. Genograms can find a link in a family history that indicate psychosocial problems (i.e. municipal violence, substance abuse, relationship difficulties) as well as cultural beliefs, values, attitudes and health consecrates (Shellenberger, et al, 369-370).After the patient assessment is complete the information can be transformed into an organizational family tree type drawing with symbols used to identify gender. For example, men are notated by squares and women by circles, with ages inputted inside the frame (Nichols, 2010, p. 124). Horizontal lines indicate marriages, with the date of marriage written on the line and vertical lines connect parents and children (124). These are just a a few(prenominal) basic sy mbols to get the genogram started. (See attached diagram for further details of symbols used to expand the genogram.) on that points no attachment.There are many uses of genograms in family therapy that have been bring to be extremely successful. Therapists have reported that victimization the genogram as a tool for family members to express emotions by telling facts and not opinions can prevent uncalled-for negative comments and frustration. The genogram can also be used to initiate a cooling down conclusion after a heated family battle and can be a way that a therapist can connect with their client in order to lay the put upation for positive relationship (Schilson, Braun, and Hudson, 1993, 201).It has found to be a means through which a therapist can peck key address and ideas for later use when developing goals and direction with their clients. When a therapist looks into each family members personal concerns, values, wishes and fears they are let out fitted to connect to the core issues causing conflict. The genogram can capture information about the family structure, major look ater events, repetitive illnesses and eventually the process can be therapeutic (201). These benefits all aim to assess, while it boosts patient morale by highlighting individual and family coping strengths. The positive relationship that is established during the intake session supports the relationship between client and therapist by come toing the patients trust and connection with the health care rung (201-202). When genograms were used as a training tool in preparing therapists and physicians for working in their field they became more than legal in developing the client-practitioner relationship. (Aten, Madson and Kruse, 2008, 111-112).Research on the effectiveness of genograms as a tool can teach family therapist and supervisors in training ways to assess their clients family relationships and history but it also helps gain self sensory faculty and self refl ection during their internship (111-112). It has been shown that cultural issues can affect patients, families, and health providers perspective on the specific illness. It also discovered that cultural genograms were used to further develop training for postgraduate disciple and to develop their skill set in understanding cultural sensitivity which helped gain insight, sensitivity and awareness to cultural issues. This ongoing training influence the quality and outcome of the patient and family encounter (112). Trainees are qualified to explore their own ethnic and cultural heritages and draw personal genogram depicting these origins (115). Shellenberger, et al (2007), proved that when residents learn how to create their own individual cultural genogram enables them to understand their beliefs, values, attitudes and how general health practices differ from their own found the cultural genogram to be a continuous working document used throughout the sessions, collecting as much information on the intake interview and add to it on subsequent visits (380). Similar to the traditionalistic genogram, the cultural genogram provides information about where the family members are from, their health beliefs and behaviors, the gender roles within the household as well as agriculture and health resources (368). They showed that the use of cultural genograms as teaching tools in medical practice proved to be beneficial when used in cultural sensitivity training. It proved to be a creative, practical tool to assist clinicians in understanding the history of the client (380).Aten, Madson and Kruse (2008) found that an introduction to family carrying into action and cultural competence resulted in a deeper positive response from students to learn a structure start out to identify cultural information for use in a clinical setting (114). Also indicated that when patient and provider do not share a common culture, communication can be challenge among the extend famil y. Without this type of understanding and knowledge of the patients past can lead to misunderstanding of a patients culture and family. It can lead to the patients feeling disrespected or uncomfortable or receiving care that is inconsistent with important cultural practices (Shellenberger, et al, 2007 p.371). Today the cultural diversity of the U.S. population, combined with the increasing cultural diversity of medicinal students and primary care residents, has created a critical need for approaches to cultural sensitivity training that are not tied to any single culture (380). By building on this understanding, providers can then develop management plans that are more consistent with the patients worldview and more likely to be followed. Although Schilson, Braun, and Hudson (1993) have discussed many benefits of using the genogram as an effective tool in the medical field, it has not been implemented in most practices due to the extensive beat it takes to gather the information. The extensive family histories are found to be a time consuming task that more or less find impractical in a busy office practice (203). The family physicians who have successfully intergraded genograms into their practices eff that the genogram does take more time to process and will increases the length of time during each visit just they also claim that the extra time required is often spent building patient rapport (Shellenberger, et al, p.372). The rapport building provided useful family information that can be used to address a patients concerns during a particular office visits or at some future visit. As a result therapists were able to use reflective listening to contribute to the healing process of the patient (372). The more intense understanding of the past and present experiences and responses contributed to a more supporting and effective treatment strategies (372).In conclusion, this look for indicates that the family therapy and medical practitioner have found many useful ways of assessing families in which the families themselves can participate. The purpose of this research was to examine the implications of the benefits of the genogram. The assessment process and procedures described here depend upon mutual engagement and participation of both the therapist and client. The family therapy has been incorporated into several family-medicine training programs and proven to be successful.The other alternatives for physicians who prefer not to use the genogram often refer to the family therapist to continue to aid the physician by acting as a referral source for patients. It is likely that further qualitative and quantitative research will clarify how the two professionals can work together most efficiently to benefit the client. Per Shellenberger, et al, (2007), clearly, as health care evolves into total liveness care, the family physician/family therapist association prom-ises to be a vital union, beneficial to care providers and the pati ents and clients they serve (380).
Thursday, April 4, 2019
The Evolution Of little pay Institutions In Nigeria Economics EssayWith the vast shortage of funds in the affirming industry, failure of the established commwholey banks and an other(a)(prenominal) establishment programs in finance smallenterprises in Nigeria, gave rise to the creative thinker of transforming existing microfinance NGOs into microfinance banks. In the past years, microfinance institutions were informal in nature. They were characterized by polar mechanism such(prenominal) as ability of the members of these microfinance institutions to have credit support from other members which could be utilise in expanding their businesses mainly in the agricultural sector.For close to three decades it has been a challenge for governments to provide micro-credit to the measly batch who are operating micro and medium enterprises. It is known that in every country nearly the world, over 90% of the businesses are micro and small businesses (Jenkins, 2009).In Nigeria, the re used to be people who go round taking money from other people in their job places. These kinds of people shell out analogous village banks, where they accept the money as deposit and save it for the people. This kind of agreement amid the inhabitants of the respected area and the people going round to invite their money establishes a trust in the midst of them. Although it differs between community to community, the whole idea is the same which is deposit taking and saving, only if what remains provoke here is that in some cases, these people that agree to save, form free radical amongst themselves, and one or twain people among them borrow the money after it has been accumulated. They usually gather the money for six to twelve months. The members who collect the money usually use it to invest in their businesses but they also know that they are ask to return the money back to the depositors. This way other members will also have a take chances to borrow. This is one o f the interesting cases as it gives us an insight on how the fiscal sector operates in Nigerian villages and towns.This process of formation of own borrowing groups was not only common in Nigeria, but it was experienced around the world. An empirical evidence in Ghana (Owusu and Tetteh, 1982), Zimbabwe (Bratton, 1986) and Dominican Re creation (Desai, 1983) shows that local conditions have influenced the precedent size of membership and that below or supra the ideal size of membership correlates negatively with gumminess and joint accountability.Anyanwu (2004) conducted a battlefield on micro-finance institutions in Nigeria, their insurance indemnity practice and potential. In this study, he analyse at that time, the ten major micro-finance institutions in Nigeria with respect to their location. These micro-finance institutions were Farmers ontogenesis Union (FADU), in Ibadan Community Women and growing (COWAD), in Ibadan Country Women Association of Nigeria (COWAN), in Akure Lift Above Poverty (LPO), in Benin Justice ontogenesis and Peace Commission (JDPC), in Ijebu-Ode Women Development Initiative (WDI), in Kano Development Education Centre (DEC ENUGU), in Enugu Development Exchange Centre (DEC BAUCHI), in Bauchi Outreach Foundation (OF), in Lagos and Nsukka Area Leaders of Thought fall in Self-Help Organization (NLTNUSHO), in Nsukka.The top of the analysis carried out by Anyanwu in 2004 showed that most of the beneficiaries of the go provided by the micro-finance institutions in Nigeria were women. About 97.4 per cent of the clients in the sample were women. Four of the institutions exclusively provide services to women, go five had over 90 per cent of their clients as females (Anyanwu, 2004 pp.5). This shows clearly how women have been the most important can for the micro-finance institutions which is viewed as normal because of the fact that women in Nigeria are alship canal believed to be marginalized in terms of socio-economic matters. The s tudy was one of the triggering factors that led to the worldly concern sector seeing the fact that almost 60 percent of the Nigerian populations which reside in the unsophisticated or remote areas do not have access to micro-credit. This gave the public sector a thinking of coming out with alternative solution to this problem. The following t sufficients 1 to 4 summarize the ten major micro-finance institutions in Nigeria and their activities before 2005.As the analysis in Table 1 to 4 shows, in average all these microfinance institutions source their funds from every government grants or grants from other individual or international donors. This kind of source tells us that the microfinance institutions in Nigeria were dependent on these grants which imbed 51.2 percent of their whole source of funds. This is a very big modus operandi in respect of sustainability of the good microfinance sector that they take to heart to the deplorable people. Microfinance institutions in Nig eria should be able to have continual supply of micro-credit to the Nigerian poor and abandoned population on their own without receiving whatsoever exogenous grants or donations. Having that huge standard of remote support as 51.2 percent grants or donations, gives us a hint that a more than qualified and self-sustainable institution is compulsory in order to serve the poor on sustainable basis. So overall, self-sustainable institutions are fateed to be able to tackle the indigence alleviation question addressed by the government through the micro-finance sector in Nigeria.With these downturns and global concern about poverty, micro-finance became a very important interchange and top priority of even international development institutions. Huge funds were set aside by these institutions to combat poverty. These institutions are membered by the world countries which made it powerful enough to deal with questions of poverty and pass on consensus solution amongst themselves. With the clear international concern about the effect of poverty which the world income dispersal with a Gini coefficient of around 0.85 makes it an excellent indicator of unsuccessful nature of the aggregate world economy these days. This result shows an unjust income distribution, which roughly 15 percent of worlds population receive 80 percent of the aggregate income generated, whereas almost half of the worlds population to fall under massive conditions of poverty (Birtek, 2009).Microcredit is a critical anti-poverty tool and a wise investment in human great(p). Now that the nations of the world have committed themselves to reduce the number of people living on less than $1 a day by half by the year 2015, we must look even more seriously at the pivotal role that sustainable microfinance can play and is playing in reaching this Millennium Development Goal (Annan, 2006).Year 2005 was accept by the United Nations as Year of Microfinance (Jenkins, 2009). United Nations is one of the sole organizations which foster the continual population of micro financing in both the developed and developing countries. The millennium development goals addressed the trend of alleviating poverty not only by giving exotic aid to the less developed and under-developed countries, but also by supporting the poor to stand on their own.With all these developments that took place since early mid-nineties, like the other governments, the Nigerian government also reacted. The primordial patois of Nigeria (CBN) responded in 2005 by establishing laws which will promote the establishments of better monetary institutions to serve the Nigerian poor population. The microfinance constitution, regulatory and supervisory mannequin for Nigeria entered into force in 2005. This law obligates microfinance institutions to be regulated in Nigeria. With this policy, regulatory and supervisory manakin, the government addressed different issues needed to strengthen microfinance institutions in Nigeria. This law inevitable the private sector to acquire license from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The license was open to start-up a micro-finance banks or an already established microfinance institutions that wanted to convert into a micro-finance bank. The policy aimed at having adequate regulation and supervision over the microfinance sector in Nigeria.According to Jenkins (2009), one of the ways of incorporating microfinance into the financial outline can be achieved through the change of microfinance NGOs into a formal regulated financial institutions. With this, adequate credit allocations to the poor could be achieved. As (white and Campion, 2002) termed it to be up scaling of microfinance institutions. Furthermore, Jenkins (2009) stated that since 1990s a large number of microfinance institutions have transformed into a regulated microfinance bank such as BancoSol, K-Rep and ACLE-DA Bank. These microfinance NGOs were all unregulated, but they later transformed into a fully regulated institution under their various(prenominal) country laws.3.2 Regulation of Micro Finance Banks in NigeriaThe microfinance policy, regulatory and supervisory framework in 2005 was the initial formal policy established for microfinance institutions that are becoming microfinance banks in Nigeria. some months later, another formal textbook was released on regulatory and supervisory frameworks for micro-finance banks (MFBs) in Nigeria. These provisos were established in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as every member of the United Nations should respect. Analysis would be made on the policies establishing the micro-finance banks in Nigeria. This policy was the proceeding of the National Conference on Microfinance organized between the Ministry of Finance (MoF) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 2000. As a result, in 2001, the Central Bank of Nigeria conducted a baseline study of the microfinance institutions in Nigeria. Some of the aims of the study among others as indicated by Okojie, Monye-Emina, Eghafona, Osaghae Ehiakhanem (2009, pp22-23) wereIdentifying the role of MFIs in financial intermediation in Nigeria,Determining the aim of financial intermediation of MFIs with a view to developing a regulatory and supervisory framework to bring and enhance its accomplishments in Nigeria, andRecommending policies that would facilitate the linkage of informal, semi-formal, and formal financial services providers to micro- and small-scale rural entrepreneurs.Also the study shows that as of third quarter of 2001, about 60 percents of technical banks had aggregate nest egg of about N99.4 million about 662,666 USD and outstanding credit of N649.6 million about 4,330,666 USD, indicating huge business proceeding in the sector. This clearly indicates the large size of their equity base. (Okojie, Monye-Emina, Eghafona, Osaghae and Ehiakhanem, 2009).With the above indications addressed by the study which explained the need for a proper regulatory framework, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) responded as indicated by (Anyanwu, 2004) as followsDevelopment of a regulatory and supervisory framework for the operations of MFIs in NigeriaEstablishment of an apex regulatory institution aerated with the responsibility of building capacity through the training of directors and managers of MFIs to change them to develop an efficient information system for identifying and managing risks, and satisfying relevant data and information requirements of regulators and stakeholders,Improvement of infrastructural facilities so as to reduce the transactional approachs associated with the regime of microcredit in the country.These areas above indicated by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) brought about the entire regulatory and supervisory framework for microfinance banks (MFBs) in Nigeria. Below will be analysis on the kinds of regulatory and supervisory issues are addressed.3.2.1 What determines the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)s Power?The regulatory and supervisory guidelines and rules are issued by the CBN in the exercise of powers given by the provisions of incision 28 subsection (1) (b) of the CBN Act 24 of 1991 (as amended) and in pursuance of the provisions of section 56-60A of the Banks and Other Financial Institution Act (BOFIA) 25 of 1991 (as amended). These guidelines were to organize and establish micro-finance banks (MFBs) that will be able to utilize deposit acceptance and savings from the public and engage in microfinance activities with their clients (CBN, 2005). This power made CBN above any other government department or parastatal in decidng regulatory and supervisory rules for these microfinance banks in Nigeria.3.2.2 What Defines a Micro Finance Bank by law?As indicated by the policy law, a microfinance bank unless otherwise stated shall be taken to mean any kind of company licensed to canalize out the business of providing microfinance services which includes such things as savi ngs, adds, domestic funds transfer and other financial services that economically active poor, micro enterprises and small and medium enterprises need to station out and march on their businesses as indicated by these rules and guidelines (CBN, 2005).3.2.3 Who should be the micro-finance clients ?It is clealy indicated in the policy establishing the microfinance banks in Nigeria that who their clients should be. The policy clealy states that the main purpose is to serve the economically active poor which will be a way of empoering them to have more choices. The policy indicated that for a person to benefit from the microfinance banks, certain characteristics should be met (CBN, 2005), which includes Having a monthly income of not more than in 2 ways the monthly per capital income of Nigeria or minimum wage, whichever is higherHaving a total productive assets inclusive of those arising from loans but excluding the cost of land of not more than five hundred thousand Naira N500, 0 00.00 only, about 3,333.33 USD.Is not a regular employee of any organizationAge between 18 and 60 years.Unless if someone fall in that category, or else microfinance loan would not be granted.3.2.4 What defines a Poor Person?A poor person as explained by the policy is one who has meager means sustenance or livelihood, and who earns a total income in a year that is less than the minimum taxable income set by the Nigerian government (CBN, 2005).3.2.5 Which businesses are termed as micro-enterprises?It is indicated in the policy that micro enterprises are those firms that require micro credit or loans to operate and shape up their businesses. These kinds of businesses are characterized of mainly sole proprietorships and are family basic in nature. Employments are provided to few which are for the most part immediate family members. These micro entrepreneurs work informally and usually are enmeshed in activities which are primary(a) in nature like local craft and subsistence agricul ture.3.2.6 What defines Collateral and what is the Loan Duration?Unlike the commercial bank lending where collateral is a requirement, micro loans are given to the micro entrepreneurs such as peasants, farmers, artisans, fishermen, women, senior citizens and non-salaried workers in the formal and informal sector based on their character and the cash fertilize of the businesses and their household (CBN, 2005).Collateral is not needed to secure any micro-credit loan due to the fact that the idea is to help the poor, low income earners and micro entrepreneurs boost their businesses as indicated by the policy (CBN, 2005).The micro-loan duration should not pass away 180 days (6 months), but in some exceptional cases where a loan is giving to micro-enterprises engaged in agricultural activities with longer gestation period, maximum of 12 months (one year) would be granted. The loan may be repaid daily, weekly, monthly or bi-monthly basis depending on the amortization schedule in the co ntract (CBN, 2005).3.2.7 Ownership and manifest of Microfinance Banks (MFBs) In NigeriaThe policy framework explained that micro-finance banks can be established by a single person, group of individuals, community development associations, and domestic private and foreign investors. The policy further explained that significant diversification in ownership would continue to be encouraged in order to enhance good corporate plaque of licensed MFBs. Also those universal banks that intend to create any category of MFB as their subsidiaries shall be required to satisfy all the requirements set by the law.Talking about granting license, it requires that any investor thats willing to operate a MFB in Nigeria shall put it in writing to the governor of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).It indicated that there shall be two categories of licenses. These categories as indicated by the Micro-Finance policy wereThose Micro Finance Banks (MFBs) licensed to operate as a unit bank otherwise known as Community banks shall operate and open branches within a condition local government area LGA. N20 million twenty million naira roughly 133,333.333 USD or such amount shall be the minimum capital requirement as may be prescribed by the CBN from time to time.And Those Micro Finance Banks (MFBs) licensed to operate in a State and open branches within a condition state or Federal capital territory. N1.0 billion (one billion naira) only roughly 6,666,666.667 USD or such an amount shall be the minimum capital requirement as may be prescribed by the CBN from time to time (CBN 2005, p10).With these features mentioned above, one can see the differences between a universal bank and a micro-finance bank regulation in Nigeria. A clear demarcation can be seen in the amount of capital requirement. For a universal bank, its 25 Billion Naira about 166,666,666.7 USD, which is 25 times the minimum capital requirement for a microfinance bank licensed to operate in a state. This is a huge good luck because microfinance banks in Nigeria are only restricted to given impute to the class of people that are either low income earners, aged or senior citizens. These only are allowed to receive a micro-credit loan.3.3 Permissible acts for Microfinance Banks in NigeriaThere are number of permissible acts indicated by the policy establishing microfinance banks in Nigeria. As indicated by the framework policy, a microfinance bank shall only be allowed to provide the following services to its clients (CBN, 2005 pp8-9)Acceptance of various types of deposits including savings, time, object lens and demand from individuals, groups and associations except public sector deposits government,provision of credit to its customers, including formal and informal self-help groups, individuals and associationspromotion and supervise of loan usage among its customers by providing auxiliary capacity building in areas such as commemorate keeping and small business managementissuance of redeemable de bentures to interested parties to raise funds from members of the public with approval of the CBNcollection of money or proceeds of banking instruments on behalf of its customers through correspondent banksprovision of wages services such as salary, gratuity, pension for the various tiers of governmentprovision of loan disbursement services for the delivery of credit programme of government, agencies, groups and individual for poverty alleviation on non-recourse basisprovision of ancillary banking services to their customers such as domestic remittance of funds and safe custodymaintenance and operation of various types of account with other banks in Nigeriainvestment of surplus funds of the MFB in suitable instruments including placing such funds with correspondent banks and in Treasury Billspay and receive interests as may be agree upon between them and their clients in accordance with existing guidelinesoperation of micro leasing facilities, micro finance related remove purchas e and arrangement of consortium lending and supervise credit schemes to ensure access of micro finance customers to inputs for their economic activitiesreceiving of refinancing or other funds from CBN and other sources, private or public, on terms inversely acceptable to both the provider of the funds and the recipient MFBsprovision of micro finance related guarantees for their customers to enable them have greater access to credit and other resourcesbuying, selling and supplying industrial and agricultural inputs, parentage , machinery and industrial raw materials to poor persons on credit and to act as agent for any association for the sale of such goods or livestockinvestment in shares or equity of any body-corporate, the objective of which is to provide microfinance services to poor personsencouragement of investment in cottage industries and income generating projects for poor persons as may be prescribed by the CBNprovision of services and facilities to customers to hedge var ious risks relating to microfinance activitiesprovision of professional advice to poor persons regarding investments in small businesses rendering managerial, marketing, technical and administrative advice to customers and assisting them in obtaining services in such fieldmobilize and provide financial and technical assistance and training to micro- enterprisesprovision of loans to microfinance clients for home improvement and consumer credits andperformance of non-banking functions that relate to micro finance related business development services such as co-operatives and group formation activities, rural industrialization and other support services needed by micro enterprises.Unless otherwise stated by the CBN, no microfinance bank is allowed to spill over these permissible acts, in other words only these services can be performed and provided by microfinance banks in Nigeria. These permissible acts are take to review by the CBN from time to time.3.4 Prohibitive acts for Microfi nance Banks in NigeriaAs indicated by the policy, microfinance banks are not allowed to carry activities (CBN, 2005 pp9-10) such as acceptance of public sector government deposit except for the permissible activities like provision of payment services such as salary, gratuity, pension for the various tiers of government and provision of loan disbursement services for the delivery of credit programme of government, agencies, groups and individual for poverty alleviation on non-recourse basisforeign exchange transactions,international commercial papers,international corporate finance,international electronic funds transfer,cheque elucidation activities,dealing in Land for speculative purposes,real estate except for its use as voice accommodation,allow any facility for speculative purposes andenter into leasing, renting, and sale/purchase of any kind with its directors, officers, employees or persons who either individually or in concert with their family members and beneficiaries ow n five percent 5% or more of the equity of the MFB, without the prior approval in writing of the Central Bank of Nigeria