Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Canadian Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Canadian Identity - Essay Example The first step toward solving the problem will be recognizing the identity issue as a national problem. The government and the Canadians should then search for a common solution to the problem. In this paper, I will analyse the issue of Canadian identity from both perspectives. Regionalism is a dominant factor in Canadian social and political framework. As a political ideology, the Canadian regionalism is based on the dominance of one region over the others in national affairs. Regionalism is the main factor that has prevented Canadians from realizing their national identity (Charles 67). Firstly, regionalism has introduced divisions among Canadian citizens. It would be difficult to realize or define a true national identity on a country that is divided between social classes and generation gap. Canadian identity exists and it is responsible for our national prosperity that is based on our regionalism. Canada is divided into six basic regions that are based on geographical and social economic factors in the country. Regionalism is vital for Canadian identity. Regionalism provides a basis for national unity, which is instrumental in defining Canadian identity. ... However, Canada has been experiencing increasing numbers of immigrants from other countries (Charles 67). The existence of people from different cultures has made it impossible to define Canadian culture. Culture is a significant in defining the identity of a country. Thus, Canadians lack a common culture that they can identify themselves with or that associate them with the country. Currently Canada has become the leading country in social diversity. The country is home for people from all over the world including the Americans. As Canadian, we are a multicultural society that is not divided along ethnicity or any racial structures. The intercultural cohesion that exists among Canadians defines them as Canada citizens and people of the modern world (Mathews 98). Lack of a dominant culture or social group in the Canadian society promote national unity and freedom that defines the life of the Canadians and hence their national identity. Canada has a widening generation gap that adds c ontroversy to the issue of the Canadian identity. Since the arrival of the European immigrants, Canadians have been loosening their attachment with their European origin. There has been a continuously increasing variation in societal values across different generations. The association of Canadian citizens with their European countries of origin has been reducing constantly. The first generation of immigrants is completely different from the current generation of Canadian citizens. This trend is increasing constantly resulting into a wide generation gap. This factor is responsible for the lost Canadian identity. For instance how can we define where we are going if we do not acknowledge where we came from. It is a fact that Canadians originated from Europe and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Speech and racism in colonial literature Essay Example for Free

Speech and racism in colonial literature Essay As Dennis Leary said, racism isn’t born, it is taught. Racism is a weapon able to denigrate and dehumanize people. â€Å"Racism has always been present in colonization especially soon after the Europeans colonized the New World, the idea of racial distinctions developed† (LaRocque). Still until today, the colonial attitude especially towards black people is due because of economic power. Many postcolonial novels show themes such as racism, abuse of power, violence and speech to show the perspective of both sides of the conflict; the black and the white. Literature is a gift because it allows people to shape their perspectives of the world. In the novels Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe and Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad readers are able to see the postcolonial literature perspective in similar stories from different sides. This essay will analyze speech in Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart in order to prove how Achebe’s novel exposes the racism found in Heart of Darkness. Stories are important because they shape a person’s mind by influencing their lives. Stories arise out of a person’s belief and therefore cannot be disproven (â€Å"Comparing†). These both novels through stories portray issues in different societies and its complexity. Things Fall Apart is an amazing novel that shows the life of the Igbo tribe in Nigeria, Africa. The novel surrounds the main character Okonkwo, a tragic hero who refuses to accept the fate of his dead father but rather self-preserves himself. Through Okonkwo many themes are portrayed dealing with violence, masculinity and the importance of religion for the Igbo tribe. Achebe’s novel shows in detail this society and thus the complexity of their way of living. Lgbo people are hardworking, religious, obedient and follow the calendar based on harvesting. This points the set of beliefs and systems that indigenous people of Africa have developed for their life’s (â€Å"Use†). Achebe also displays the role of men and women in society and how women are assign unimportant roles being men the power in the Igbo society. The importance of speech in the novel is prioritized as the author uses Igbo language thus creating a distinctive African story. It shows an image of Africa before colonialism changed it (â€Å"Use†). In the other hand, Josephs Conrad’s novella acts more as a criticism comparing the civilized and the uncivilized. This shows the power of the white Europeans on their colonization in Africa. As its title, it shows the darkest side of humans by brutality and racism. The novella starts in the Nellie at the Thames River when the captain Charlie Marlow starts to narrate his stories about how he entered to Africa and his experiences. Marlow has always have passion for maps, exploring and adventure that is what begins his journey to a new and mysterious world; Africa. Through his stories we see the complexity of the African jungle and how this place influences the characters. The only thing that inspires and drives Marlow is his desire to meet Kurtz, an admirable and respected agent. Through his experiences we can see the racism towards the black people and how European colonizers treated them. By the actions of many characters we perceive the ivory smuggling, the ambition of power and money and the evil hidden in the jungle. Therefore it shows darkness behind inhumanity and injustice to others. How this darkness is so powerful that can destroy others and the person itself (Conrad). In both novels we see the importance of speech. Speech acts as a symbol of racism and the distance of language. In Things Fall Apart speech is very important as Achebe uses lgbo words in the novel. â€Å"By incorporating Igbo words, rhythms, language and concepts into an English text about his culture, Achebe goes a long way to bridge a cultural divide† (â€Å"Language†). This shows the complexity of the African culture and the misunderstanding between cultures. In this case being the lgbo culture and the ones of the colonists. Therefore Achebe’s incorporation of Igbo words makes his novel even more realistic because it gives the Africans a voice. It also allows the reader to learn more about its culture by understanding the meaning of these words. We also see how organized and specific the dialect is relying on the rules to address to people. These words don’t make the reading harder but rather they make it more interesting basing on its context and how they are used. Also these words are crucial for the novel because if they are translated to English they might lose their concept. â€Å"To provide an authentic feel for lgbo culture would be impossible without also allowing proverbs to play a significant role in the novel† (â€Å"Language†). We can see how oral is important for the culture as there is plenty communication. In lgbo tribes messages are carried orally; stories, songs and tales told from families and basically the whole culture relies on oral tradition, never losing the uniqueness of their dialect. It also proves how this culture is much more complex than it seems as there are many different languages within the 9 villages. It shows how two cultures come together as the novel being written in English but never losing the lgbo words. This also represents how certain aspects of cultures are never going to be understood because they are too complex for each other. Achebe plays with words carefully and allows readers to feel part in the story as these words play an importance in the emotions of the reader. â€Å"Achebe’s introduction of new forms and language into a traditional (Western) narrative structure to communicate unique African experiences forever changed the definition of world literature† (â€Å"Language†). In contrast, in the novella Heart of Darkness speech is represented as silent. Silence marks the distance between the white colonizers and the African. Conrad is not giving speech to the Africans but rather marking the big space of the misunderstanding of cultures. â€Å"Here, the human is perceived to have no language, only a physical space and the surrounding nature support this with the muting darkness and unknowing silence along the riverbanks† (Lerch). This is a major issue because without speaking there is no understanding or knowledge. Language allows people to learn from each other, communication is fundamental. This boundary leads to know people only by their physical in the case of the natives, one of the major causes of stereotypes and racism. â€Å"Speech suddenly proved inadequate for Conrad’s purpose of letting the European glimpse the unspeakable carving in their hearts† (Achebe). This acts as a symbol of power and superiority from part of the colonizers that can speak and hold the control. Natives are not given voice, opinion or the right to express themselves. The crash of cultures brings conflicts to the both sides as any of them know each other’s language. There is a constant absent of noise and only the sound of darkness fills it up. Even though speech is silent in the natives, it plays an important and effective role in the story and characters in the novella. From the beginning the history is told from Marlow’s stories and experiences that he’s telling to the other members of the Nellie. â€Å"In western society, silence is something to be filled. â€Å"Language is a euphemism, a saving life for all the Europeans† (Lerch). Marlow’s communication forms part of the Chinese box technique that is the story inside another story. His expressions, detailed descriptions, images and emotions transport us to the past, to the heart of darkness. Speech according to characters is seen in various ways, from much too little speak. This represents the personal importance of speech for each character and how it varies depending on the personality and interest of the character. For example speech in Kurtz is represented as insanity because of the lack of understanding and isolating from society (â€Å"Heartâ€Å"). However it is positively as it is the link Kurtz has with the natives that is what brings him closer to them and therefore being recognized as the leader of the jungle. In addition, this two novels use speech as a crucial and important aspect but they represent different things. As Eric Parslow said, race is a lazy minds tool for identifying culture. In both novels racism is a theme that stands out. Racism is portrayed differently and is used to explain main issues found in both novels. Many critics talk about if in the novel Things Fall Apart there is racism or not. I personally think racism is not found in this novel but rather is misunderstood as Chinua Achebe is criticizing humanity and the inhuman actions done by colonizers to tribes of Africa. The Igbo culture in his novel is shown to the reader before colonization occurs. This helps the reader to have a better understanding on the effect of colonization and how it can tear cultures apart, by pieces. By the arrival of white colonizers in town we see how Achebe wants to point the Europeans desire of ambition, conquest, violence and racism towards the African cultures. Societies are torn apart and colonizers think they have the power to erase their culture foundation and implement theirs. â€Å"The westerners tool the foundations of the indigenous people’s society and ways of living and left them with nothing. They also began â€Å"reformation of the native’s minds, by assigning the mark of the negative to everything African and the positive to everything European† (â€Å"Things†). Achebe’s novel is in fact a write back to Conrad as the racism and cruelty he found on the novel. Achebe wants the reader to see the other perspective from the side of the natives. Therefore, he is showing things as they were and those descriptions and actions might be perceived as racist. There is a quote in the book that says: The white man is stupid, he is fit to be a slave† (Ward). This quote is racist however you can’t say the whole novel is racist because of one quote. In order for a novel to be racist, the whole book needs to reflect this. In contrast Conrad’s novella Heart of Darkness is still being much critiqued as Africa is portrayed as a primitive place where much racism and violence is held towards the natives (â€Å"Things†). This novel portrays the other side of the story, the perspective from Marlow, a white European. By this we can see how Africa is seen as a different world where the natives are uncivilized and lack intelligence. â€Å"We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of a conquered monster, but there you could look at a thing monstrous and free† (Achebe). Conrad through the character Marlow uses words as black, monsters, uncivilized to refer to the natives. Although Conrad’s descriptions, imagery, metaphors and similes are very powerful and descriptive some are racist against the natives. The arrival of the Europeans show the power they have and how they believe they can claim for resources and the land that is not there’s. As said before, silence endures in the novella as natives have no speech symbolizing the misunderstanding of cultures. â€Å"The outcome is seen in western author’s postcolonial literature by deceptions of unknown groups of people as savages or primitive. When in reality the author has no understanding of the group of people being presented† (â€Å"Things†). As said before natives of Africa in Conrad’s novella are portrayed as uncivilized people, being this an irony. The colonizers are not civilized because of the horrible and racist actions they perform. Due to the complexity of the space they are surrounded they lose their morals. The jungle is a character due to its power to change people. This is also the reason why the colonizers changed and became the uncivilized ones because of their ambition for power. Therefore, Conrad’s novella can be considered as racist but it is very important to remember that the story is told from the other side. As Bob Dylan said â€Å"Dont criticize what you cant understand.† Both of these novels are important for literature in the world. Each one has different objectives and messages. Differences relies on the context and perspective they are being told. Things Fall Apart and Heart of Darkness deal with the big theme of colonization. What’s interesting about them is that we can see both sides of the story and by this form our criteria. I believe it is very important to see the two faces of an issue in order to understand it. However, I consider that you can fully understand something if you have lived it. A person will always have his opinion towards something but will never truly understand it. To criticize a book, that person must have been part of the story and the context that is being told. Therefore we can’t say Heart of Darkness or Things Fall Apart is racist if we have not experienced colonization in that context. Both authors are showing readers the perspective from which is being told, so that the reader can have both sides of the story and form their criteria about the complex theme of colonization on the tribes of Africa. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. 18. 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Sources Criticism. 1961. 3rd ed. Ed. Robert Kimbrough, London: W. W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261 Comparing Things Fall Apart and Heart of Darkness. 20 Oct 2012 Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. The Norton Anthology: English Literature. General Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 8th Ed. New York: Norton, 2006. 1891-1947. Heart of Darkness Theme of Language and Communication. Shmoop. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. LaRocque, Emma. Racism and Colonization. Aboriginal Perspectives. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Use of Juxtaposition In Shakespeares Hamlet Essay -- William Shakesp

Within Shakespeare's Hamlet, juxtaposition is used to achieve many purposes such as to enhance mood, re-establish themes and to illustrate characterization. The characters of Hamlet and Ophelia are an example of how Shakespeare uses juxtaposition to clearly illustrate traits of his characters. However, he not only juxtaposes the character against others but also to themselves in their speech. Moreover, in the gravedigger scene in Act 5, Shakespeare uses juxtaposition to enhance the theme and message of the scene. Additionally, the use of juxtaposition creates one of the most important themes of the play, contrast. Shakespeare uses much juxtaposition to personify his characters. This helps to give the audience a greater understanding of the relationships of the characters both to themselves and to other characters in the play. Ophelia and Hamlet are greatly juxtaposed against each other in Hamlet. Ophelia’s role in the play is the foil to both Hamlet and to her brother Laetres. In the play Ophelia is the catalyst, the means of Laertes and Hamlets actions and she acts like a mirror and enables the audience to view them though a more heroic perspective. Throughout the play, Ophelia sparks events and although she isn’t a well developed nor a main character her part in the play is crucial. As the catalyst she causes the battle at the end of the play, as she did “persuade revenge” on Hamlet by Laertes. Hamlet’s feign of madness and talk about suicide, becomes Ophelia’s reality as she falls into depression and madness and when Hamlet kills her father, she eventually commits suicide. Ophelia’s psychological presence and breakdown is necessary to allow Hamlet to overthrow his current characterization. As to the audience, it is ... ...e tension from Ophelia’s death and the ever-increasing tension and complexity of the plot. It is also an important milestone for Hamlet as he comes in terms with the fact that death is the ultimate equalizer and later in the scene Hamlet imagines how that even “Alexander the great‘s body would of turned into dust, which could have been used to make loam, and that loam could have been used to plug a beer-barrel. This readies Hamlet to die in the final scene, knowing the death is universal, equalizing and more importantly, that everyone dies. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is filled with juxtapositions. All of the characters have foils and are juxtaposed not only against other characters, but also to themselves through their soliloquies. The themes are also juxtaposed against each other to give greater meaning to them and to introduce another theme, the theme of contrast.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Essay --

Satire is a balanced combination of sarcasm, irony, humor, and rhetorical devices that all focus on mocking or ridiculing certain works. In â€Å"The War Prayer† by Mark Twain and â€Å"The Battle of the Ants† by Henry David Thoreau, both short works satire the glorification of war. In comparison, â€Å"The War Prayer† revolves around jingoism by displaying traces of shock, hyperbole and a juxtaposing tone; whereas â€Å"The Battle of the Ants† exhibits a historical background through sarcasm, verisimilitude, and a mock-heroic tone. â€Å"The War Prayer† by Mark Twain satirizes through jingoism, one satiric device is shown through shock: ‘I come from the Throne-bearing a message from Almighty God!’ (Twain 5. 53); as citizens listen in on a church service in a country that is going to war the soldiers are being granted triumph and safety by God’s messenger however a stranger interrupts and claims he is God’s messenger, Twain used outrageous details to startle and grab the reader’s attention showing a stranger demanding he is the messenger when instead someone else is, thus plotting a twist in the passage. Another satiric device that was used in Twain’s passage is hyperbole: â€Å"†¦in every breast burned the holy fire of patriotism†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Twain 5. 2); the exaggeration was given its purpose to give the readers the image of the â€Å"†¦time of great and exalting excitement† (Twain. 5. 1) that was happening in the unnamed town that was in the beginning of bloodshed. One more satirical device that was used in the â€Å"The War Prayer† is its juxtaposing tone; Twain contrasts the praising and celebratory tone to the bitter tone at the end of the passage. At the beginning of the passage the tone is described as giddy and enthralling: â€Å"The country was up in arms, the war was on, in ... ...nts] battle-cry was ‘Conquer or die.’†(Thoreau 3. 22). Thoreau uses level and elevated diction to persuade the reader that this crusade is not meaningless but glorifies the actual fierceness of warriors in combat, resembling actual wars. In conclusion, the satirical pieces discussed share common satirical techniques and differ in them as well. â€Å"The War Prayer† juggled around jingoism by using shock, hyperbole, and juxtaposing tone to give the passage multiple turnouts, resulting in a bathetic ending. â€Å"The Battle of the Ants† displayed its work through historical context using the satirical elements of sarcasm, verisimilitude, and a mock-heroic tone, thus resulting Thoreau’s pompous writing to mocking historians who glorify war with detailed notes. Both accomplish the glorification of war by portraying hyper-patriotism and elevated diction in unique ways as well.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Mary Oliver Rhetorical Analysis Essay

The jellyfish, a dangerously stunning underwater creature, can adequately symbolize the phenomenon that is nature. Nobody denies the â€Å"medusa† of its attractive features, such as, its dazzling pink color, elegant frame, and most important, its transparent body that displays running electricity. However, touch it underwater and experience the wrath of its devious abilities. Its colorful stingers have the power to inject an electrical toxin into their prey. It can kill. Furthermore, Mary Oliver, the writer of â€Å"Owls†, successfully delineates the two-faced personality nature is affiliated with. In this rich excerpt, Oliver makes it a priority to point out that nature can be both miraculous and corrupt at the same time. Like the jellyfish, nature can bring â€Å"immobilizing happiness†, but it can also be complex, and bring forth â€Å"death.† From the get-go, Oliver uses Vonnegut-like imagery to create a distinct contrast between the â€Å"terrifying† and the fascinating parts of nature. For instance, when Oliver describes the great horned owl and the fields full of roses. According to Oliver, the great horned owl has a â€Å"hooked beak† that makes â€Å"heavy, crisp, and breathy snapping† sounds, and a set of â€Å"razor-tipped toes† that â€Å"rasp the limb.† Not only that, but this mystical creature is characterized as â€Å"merciless†, and as a dark creature that would â€Å" eat the whole world† if it could. The fields full of roses, on the other hand, are used to symbolize happiness. They are described as sweet, lovely, and â€Å"red and pink and white tents of softness and nectar.† Through Oliver’s creative use of descriptive imagery, she begins to explain the incomprehensible mysteries of nature. In the same fashion, Oliver uses vivid and flamboyant   diction to emphasize nature’s intricate ways. To describe the darkness of nature, Oliver uses words such as, â€Å"hopelessness†, â€Å"headless bodies†, and â€Å"immutable force†. On the contrary, for the awing parts of nature, Oliver’s passage includes words like, â€Å"exquisite†, â€Å"luminous wanderer†, and â€Å"sheer rollicking glory†. As a result, her impressive style presents a clear image of how Oliver is â€Å"standing at the edge of mystery, and ultimately, â€Å"conquered.† Finally, Oliver uses her intimate appreciation for nature to relate to the audience and drive her claim home. First, Oliver uses an anaphora to talk about the field full of roses. Oliver begins eight consecutive phrases with the word â€Å"I.† Thus, implying the impact nature has on her as an individual, and alarming the reader of the love she has towards this prodigy. Oliver then acknowledges that â€Å"the world where the owl is endlessly hungry and endlessly on the hunt is the world in which† she lives too. Correspondingly, she mentions that nature’s curiosities involve the audience of this excerpt, as well as everyone else on planet earth. Indeed, in this lyrical excerpt, Mary Oliver uses her impressive style to describe how nature can be convoluted, charming, and over-powering. One can’t help to acknowledge the creative way Oliver uses the English language to successfully contrast the positive and negative parts of the environment. In addition, Oliver strives to make her nuanced writing and allegory for the complexity of nature. When looking at the big picture, it is easy to see how Oliver’s writing may exhibit to all how one might share whatever it is they feel passionately about.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Analyse a set of results and investigate the provided hypothesise Essays

Analyse a set of results and investigate the provided hypothesise Essays Analyse a set of results and investigate the provided hypothesise Essay Analyse a set of results and investigate the provided hypothesise Essay Essay Topic: Thesis My name is Khalil Sayed-Hossen, Im a year10 student and am carrying out the Guesstimate coursework task. For this coursework I am going to analyse a set of results and investigate the provided hypothesise. Plan Within the duration of producing this (Guestimate) coursework, I will first investigate the hypothesis given, that people estimate the length of lines better than the size of angles. Once I have done this I will begin to investigate hypothesise of my own. I will need to find away of proving and disproving these hypothesise through analysing relevant data. The data I will be using is from a pooled set of results that members of my class have collected and combined together to form a broad, clearer set of results. To be able to compare a set of results there must be a clear comparison. Since the results of the length of the line were given in the mm and the size of the angle in à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ (degrees) there is no clear comparison. To be able to compare these two different types of data I will need to calculate the percentage error for each result. This is done by first calculating the differences between the actual size of the angle and the length of the line, i.e. errors, and then by using the formula: Error à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Correct à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 = percentage error Ways in which I can compare this data include, looking at the mean of the results, standard deviation and through producing scatter graphs. Scatter graphs are useful as, once the line of best fit has been drawn we can then analyse the inter-quartile range. I will also use any other methods that become apparent during the duration of this coursework and apply them when investigating my other hypothesis as well. During the course of my investigation I will try and eliminate any bias that might occur. This is most likely to happen when I select a range of data from the pool of results, when selecting specific data I will try and sample as many random data as I can and make sure that it hasnt all come from one person. Collection of data As part of this coursework, a given task was to collect data from random people by asking them to estimate the length of a line in (mm) and the size of an angle in (à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½) degrees. Once these results were taken they were then entered onto an X-cell spreadsheet as raw data. This was carried out by each member of the class, and once each of us had completed this task we pooled our results to give a broad, clearer set of data, which could be used to investigate any hypothesise. Data analysis Once all the data has been collected I will begin to make an analysis and apply it to the given hypothesise in the coursework, and also my own hypothesise. Before I can do this I need to change the data from being just raw data, to data I can compare. As said earlier, this can only be achieved by working out the percentage error for each data point for both line guesses and angle guesses. I will now work out the percentage errors. I will start by splitting investigation into different parts, depending on what methods Im using to prove or disprove the hypothesis of line. I will first select the data from the pool that I will use to analyse. This is not as simple as it sounds though. When selecting data from the pooled set of results we need to take into consideration how many males were asked and how many females were asked, this is called stratified random sampling. We do this to prevent any bias. For example, if our pooled set of results contained 40 males and 90 females and we then selected 20 males and 20 females results to analyse, our data would be bias, as the ratio of women to men or men to women would not be the same as the original set of results, and would have changed significant. Stratified random sampling prevents this, and is achieved in this case by taking the number of males and dividing that by the total number of people, and multiplying this figure by however many samples are needed, this will then give the correct ratio of women to men if the process is then repeated for the amount of women. The formula looks like this- Group (male or female) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ total à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ preferred number of data points I will now use this method to select a set of data points from the pooled set of results. In total there are 167 males and females who estimated the line and the angle, of these, 85 were males and 82 were females. So through knowing this information we can now calculate how many results of men and women are needed in my sample of however many data points by using stratified random sampling. Stratified Random Sampling I want to sample forty angle data points from the total of 167. I will now attempt to do this using the stratified random sampling method and formula. Group (male or female) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ total à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ preferred number of data points Males 85 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 167 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 40 = 20.35 *(say 20) Females 82 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 167 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 40 = 19.64 *(say 20) *Rounded to the nearest whole number to give exact amount needed. So from these results I can see that the ratio of males against females is equal when rounded to the nearest whole number. From gaining this information I can now accurately begin to specifically sample 40 random data points from the pooled set of results. My Sample data line angle age gender 1 2000 45 16 M 2 35 52 12 F 3 50 43 45 F 4 50 45 14 M 5 48 40 46 M 6 55 50 14 M 7 25 45 17 F 8 30 40 45 F 9 37.5 32 44 M 10 60 30 14 M 11 100 70 47 F 12 60 40 15 M 13 30 36 14 F 14 50 35 61 M 15 50 40 45 F 16 60 30 41 M 17 30 40 46 F 18 40 40 16 F 19 45 38 36 M 20 30 45 32 F 21 45 40 66 M 22 65 35 34 M 23 55 35 34 F 24 50 40 62 M 25 40 35 46 F 26 40 40 41 F 27 50 45 14 M 28 55 45 50 M 29 40 9 71 F 30 20 45 16 F 31 50 45 14 M 32 40 50 14 M 33 40 45 41 F 34 60 50 15 M 35 70 75 14 M 36 53.2 47.2 28 M 37 40 35 34 F 38 45 45 45 F 39 37 45 79 F 40 10 45 12 F When selecting the data not only did I have to take into account the ratio of males to females but I also have to consider the fact that each persons results may not be reliable, so to prevent this, my data selection was spread throughout the pool and not all from one section, this was another way of preventing bias and unreliable data. Once I had finished selecting my sample data. I noticed that within my set of selected data there was an outlier or anomaly, this I have highlighted in green. This anomaly must be removed and replaced as it is not a fair representation of the average guess of the length of the line, and when calculating the mean of line guesses, the anomaly would have a large weighted effect and would make the mean of the results insignificant and unreliable. Revised set of sample data line angle age gender 1 40 30 78 M 2 35 52 12 F 3 50 43 45 F 4 50 45 14 M 5 48 40 46 M 6 55 50 14 M 7 25 45 17 F 8 30 40 45 F 9 37.5 32 44 M 10 60 30 14 M 11 100 70 47 F 12 60 40 15 M 13 30 36 14 F 14 50 35 61 M 15 50 40 45 F 16 60 30 41 M 17 30 40 46 F 18 40 40 16 F 19 45 38 36 M 20 30 45 32 F 21 45 40 66 M 22 65 35 34 M 23 55 35 34 F 24 50 40 62 M 25 40 35 46 F 26 40 40 41 F 27 50 45 14 M 28 55 45 50 M 29 40 9 71 F 30 20 45 16 F 31 50 45 14 M 32 40 50 14 M 33 40 45 41 F 34 60 50 15 M 35 70 75 14 M 36 53.2 47.2 28 M 37 40 35 34 F 38 45 45 45 F 39 37 45 79 F 40 10 45 12 F This is set of sample data is going to be used through out my investigation of the length of the line. I will now begin my investigation. Firstly, I will begin by converting all the line and angle data points into their percentage errors. As said in my plan, this is done to implement a clear comparison. I will first need to work out all the errors of the data points. We do this by subtracting the just the original guesses from the correct length of the line and size of the angle. I will use Excel to help me with this as through the use of excel we can use simple formulas to work out equations. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis states that people estimate the lengths of lines better than the size of angles. I will now test this hypothesis by calculating the mean and of both line results and angle results and compare them. Once I have done this I will then implement other methods, such as standard deviation cumulative frequency graph, and inter-quartile range. Comparing data As I mentioned earlier, we need to be able to compare the line an angle guesstimate data, but at the moment there is no comparison. To be able to compare this data we need to find a comparison. The best comparison is to work out the percentage errors for each line guesstimates, and angles guesstimates, as this is relevant to both the two different units of measure and will be easy to compare. First thoughts and assumptions I think from what I know about angles and lines that the hypothesis is wrong and that people will estimate the size of the angle more accurately. When considering the length of a line its difficult to know just how long it is, this is because an exact line length is difficult to visualise, whereas with an angle we know that 90 degrees is a right angle, 180 degrees is a half, and this we can picture in our minds. So when we see an angle we use the visualisations of sizes of angles that we know to be true to estimate the size of another angle, as they have to be either smaller or bigger than these. But when we try an estimate the length of a line its not so easy, as a line has no limitations, it can be as long as we want, but an angle can be no greater than 360 degrees. Also an angle is a fraction of a circle, but a line can be a fraction of a line than has an unimaginable greatness of length. So baring this in mind, when people estimate the size of the angle I think they will be closer to the correct size, than when they estimate the length of a line. Calculating the percentage errors for line guesstimates line age gender Line error Line percentage errors 1 40 78 M -5 -11.11111111 2 35 12 F -10 -22.22222222 3 50 45 F 5 11.11111111 4 50 14 M 5 11.11111111 5 48 46 M 3 6.666666667 6 55 14 M 10 22.22222222 7 25 17 F -20 -44.44444444 8 30 45 F -15 -33.33333333 9 37.5 44 M -7.5 -16.66666667 10 60 14 M 15 33.33333333 11 100 47 F 55 122.2222222 12 60 15 M 15 33.33333333 13 30 14 F -15 -33.33333333 14 50 61 M 5 11.11111111 15 50 45 F 5 11.11111111 16 60 41 M 15 33.33333333 17 30 46 F -15 -33.33333333 18 40 16 F -5 -11.11111111 19 45 36 M 0 0 20 30 32 F -15 -33.33333333 21 45 66 M 0 0 22 65 34 M 20 44.44444444 23 55 34 F 10 22.22222222 24 50 62 M 5 11.11111111 25 40 46 F -5 -11.11111111 26 40 41 F -5 -11.11111111 27 50 14 M 5 11.11111111 28 55 50 M 10 22.22222222 29 40 71 F -5 -11.11111111 30 20 16 F -25 -55.55555556 31 50 14 M 5 11.11111111 32 40 14 M -5 -11.11111111 33 40 41 F -5 -11.11111111 34 60 15 M 15 33.33333333 35 70 14 M 25 55.55555556 36 53.2 28 M 8.2 18.22222222 37 40 34 F -5 -11.11111111 38 45 45 F 0 0 39 37 79 F -8 -17.77777778 40 10 12 F -35 -77.77777778 I will start by investigating the line. I first calculated the errors, by subtracting the correct length of the line away from the guesses. Once I had calculated the errors I was then able to use the percentage error formula: Error à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Correct à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 100 = percentage error In excel we do this in the percentage error column by dividing the first data point in the line error column by 45, then by multiplying this by 100 to find the percentage. This found the percentage error for the first data point, to find the percentage error for all the other data points, because the formula is the same for each of the other data points in this column we simply highlight the first data point using the right click of the mouse, drag down and the formula works out the percentage error in each cell. Calculating the percentage error for angle guesstimates angle age gender Angle error Angle percentage errors (%) 1 30 78 M -6 -16.66666667 2 52 12 F 16 44.44444444 3 43 45 F 7 19.44444444 4 45 14 M 9 25 5 40 46 M 4 11.11111111 6 50 14 M 14 38.88888889 7 45 17 F 9 25 8 40 45 F 4 11.11111111 9 32 44 M -4 -11.11111111 10 30 14 M -6 -16.66666667 11 70 47 F 34 94.44444444 12 40 15 M 4 11.11111111 13 36 14 F 0 0 14 35 61 M -1 -2.777777778 15 40 45 F 4 11.11111111 16 30 41 M -6 -16.66666667 17 40 46 F 4 11.11111111 18 40 16 F 4 11.11111111 19 38 36 M 2 5.555555556 20 45 32 F 9 25 21 40 66 M 4 11.11111111 22 35 34 M -1 -2.777777778 23 35 34 F -1 -2.777777778 24 40 62 M 4 11.11111111 25 35 46 F -1 -2.777777778 26 40 41 F 4 11.11111111 27 45 14 M 9 25 28 45 50 M 9 25 29 9 71 F -27 -75 30 45 16 F 9 25 31 45 14 M 9 25 32 50 14 M 14 38.88888889 33 45 41 F 9 25 34 50 15 M 14 38.88888889 35 75 14 M 39 108.3333333 36 47.2 28 M 11.2 31.11111111 37 35 34 F -1 -2.777777778 38 45 45 F 9 25 39 45 79 F 9 25 40 45 12 F 9 25 When calculating the percentage error for the angle guesstimates, we repeat the same process needed to work out the percentage errors for the line guesstimates. Except in this case we divided the errors by 36, as this was the correct size of the angle. Now that I have calculated the percentage errors for all data points of line and angles within my sample data, I will be able to proceed with my fist method of proving or disproving the hypothesis, this will be by calculating the mean of line percentage errors and angle percentage errors. I will then compare both means. Calculating the mean of the line percentage errors Line percentage errors (%) 11.11111111 22.22222222 11.11111111 11.11111111 6.666666667 22.22222222 44.44444444 33.33333333 16.66666667 33.33333333 122.2222222 33.33333333 33.33333333 11.11111111 11.11111111 33.33333333 33.33333333 11.11111111 0 33.33333333 0 44.44444444 22.22222222 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 22.22222222 11.11111111 55.55555556 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 33.33333333 55.55555556 18.22222222 11.11111111 0 17.77777778 77.77777778 Line percentage errors (%) -11.11111111 -22.22222222 11.11111111 11.11111111 6.666666667 22.22222222 -44.44444444 -33.33333333 -16.66666667 33.33333333 122.2222222 33.33333333 -33.33333333 11.11111111 11.11111111 33.33333333 -33.33333333 -11.11111111 0 -33.33333333 0 44.44444444 22.22222222 11.11111111 -11.11111111 -11.11111111 11.11111111 22.22222222 -11.11111111 -55.55555556 11.11111111 -11.11111111 -11.11111111 33.33333333 55.55555556 18.22222222 -11.11111111 0 -17.77777778 -77.77777778 To calculate the mean percentage error, we need to use the usual method of calculating any mean result. We need to add up all the percentage error data points and divide by how many data points there are. But before we can do this we need to make any negative percentage error data points positive. If this is not done, when we add up all the data, the negative data will subtract itself from any positive data, and this we do not want, as we are only looking at the percentage of which they were away from the correct, weather or not the guess was too high or too low, is insignificant. Adding all percentage errors To add the percentage errors we need to convert the negatives into positives, as said earlier. I did this in excel by squaring each negative percentage, by using the formula ^2, and then square rooting each percentage. Once I had done this I was able to add up all the percentage errors by first highlighting all the data points in the percentage error column and then by using the formula ? in excel, which means the sum of. This gave me the sum of all the percentage errors for the line, and the angle. The sum of the percentage errors for the line was 981.5555556% and for the angles 795%. Line percentage errors (%) Angle percentage errors (%) 11.11111111 16.66666667 22.22222222 44.44444444 11.11111111 19.44444444 11.11111111 25 6.666666667 11.11111111 22.22222222 38.88888889 44.44444444 25 33.33333333 11.11111111 16.66666667 11.11111111 33.33333333 16.66666667 122.2222222 94.44444444 33.33333333 11.11111111 33.33333333 0 11.11111111 2.777777778 11.11111111 11.11111111 33.33333333 16.66666667 33.33333333 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 0 5.555555556 33.33333333 25 0 11.11111111 44.44444444 2.777777778 22.22222222 2.777777778 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 2.777777778 11.11111111 11.11111111 11.11111111 25 22.22222222 25 11.11111111 75 55.55555556 25 11.11111111 25 11.11111111 38.88888889 11.11111111 25 33.33333333 38.88888889 55.55555556 108.3333333 18.22222222 31.11111111 11.11111111 2.777777778 0 25 17.77777778 25 77.77777778 25 24.53888889 23.625 Finding the mean percentage error What I did next was divide both numbers by 40, as this was the amount of data points. I was left with the products, 24.53888889% for the line, and 23.625% for the angles, which were the mean percentage errors. These are highlighted in yellow. The hypothesis states that people estimate lines better than angles. From information I have gathered through calculating the mean result of the percentage errors I have found that my findings contradict the hypothesis, and that people tend to estimate the size of angles better than the length of lines. My assumption that people will estimate the size of the angle better than the length of the line, for reasons mentioned earlier, was found to be true through this investigation. If I were able to make these findings more reliable I would have sampled a larger amount of data from a more extensive pool of data, as this would have decreased the effect that unreliable, bias data had on the mean. I will now investigate through other methods of proving and disproving the hypothesis. Cumulative frequency I could have at this point produced a frequency graph, but due to limitation in time I have decided to produce a cumulative frequency graph as this is a clearer, indicative representation of data, and I will be able to deduce more information from it. If we represent the percentage errors of both line and angle percentage errors individually in frequency tables, we can calculate cumulative frequencies. Once we have done this we can use these new values, when plotted and on a graph, to form a cumulative frequency curve. This is useful as we will be able to find the median from the halfway point, and we will be able to locate the upper and lower quartiles. The upper quartile is 75% and the lower quartile is 25 %. From knowing the upper and lower quartile, we can calculate the inter-quartile range. This is found by subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile. The inter quartile range is half of the data distribution and shows how widely spread the data is, if the inter-quartile range is small, then the distribution is bunched together and shows more consistent results, if the inter-quartile range is large, then the distribution is spread and shows a wider variation in results. We can compare both the line inter-quartile range and the angle inter-quartile range, and whichever is smallest, will be the most accurate, as this would mean a smaller percentage error. Line percentage errors cumulative frequency table Line percentage errors (%) Frequency cumulative frequency upper limits 0.-10 4 4 ? 10 11-.20 17 21 ? 20 21-30 5 26 ? 30 31-40 8 34 ? 40 41-50 2 36 ? 50 51-60 2 38 ? 60 61-70 0 38 ? 70 71-80 1 39 ? 80 81-90 0 39 ? 90 91-100 0 39 ? 100 101-110 0 39 ? 110 111-120 0 39 ? 120 121-130 1 40 ? 130 To produce a cumulative frequency table, you first set the boundaries for each group of percentage errors this has been done in the first column. We then count all the percentages that are within the boundaries of that group, and this is then recorded in the frequency column. Once this has been done for each group, we can then calculate the cumulative frequency by adding each of the previous frequency data points to the next, and record each product in the cumulative frequency column. We then state in the in the upper limits column, what the highest percentage error can be. Now that I have produced a cumulative frequency table, I can now start to produce a cumulative frequency graph. Line percentage errors cumulative frequency graph The graph shows the cumulative frequency curve of the line percentage errors. From this curve I can find the lower and upper quartiles. These were; Lower quartile = 13% Upper quartile = 35% From knowing the lower and upper quartiles, I can calculate the inter-quartile range, by simply subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile. Inter-quartile range = (35 13) % = 22% The inter-quartile range of the line percentage error, cumulative frequency graph is 22%. I will now investigate the cumulative frequency graph, of the angle percentage error. Angle percentage errors cumulative frequency table Angle percentage errors (%) Frequency cumulative frequency upper limits 010 7 7 ? 10 1120 14 21 ? 20 2130 11 32 ? 30 3140 4 36 ? 40 4150 1 37 ? 50 5160 0 37 ? 60 6170 0 37 ? 70 7180 1 38 ? 80 8190 0 38 ? 90 91100 1 39 ? 100 101110 1 40 ? 110 111120 0 40 ? 120 121130 0 40 ? 130 I have produced the cumulative frequency table for the angle percentage errors. I can now begin to draw the cumulative frequency graph. Once I have drawn this I will calculate the lower and upper quartiles, and then calculate the inter-quartile range. Once I know the inter-quartile range I will be able to compare the inter-quartile range for the line data and the inter-quartile range for the angle data Angle percentage errors cumulative frequency graph The graph shows the cumulative frequency curve of the angle percentage errors. From this curve I can find the lower and upper quartiles. These were; Lower quartile = 12% Upper quartile = 28% From knowing the lower and upper quartiles, I can calculate the inter-quartile range, by simply subtracting the lower quartile from the upper quartile as I did for the line percentage cumulative quartiles. Inter-quartile range = (28 12) % = 16% Comparing graph data I have found the inter-quartile range of both line and angle cumulative frequency graphs. Theses were, for the line percentage errors- 22%, and for the angle percentage errors-16%. Its clear to see from these results that the inter-quartile range of the angle percentage errors was much less than the inter-quartile ranges of the line percentage errors. There is a difference of 6% percent between the two results. This shows that there was a wider spread of data for the line percentage errors, and that the accuracy when estimating the lines length was not as precise as when the angles were estimated. I have shown through my investigations that when people estimated the length of a line and the size of an angle, results were more accurate when the size of the angle was estimated. My first thoughts were that people would estimate the size of angles better, as angles are a fraction of a circle, which is limited. But the length of a line is un-limited and it is difficult to visualise the correct length of lines. I believe that my thoughts could be true as the mean and inter-quartile range of the angle percentage errors, were more accurate than the line on both occasions. I have investigated this hypothesis using two different methods, and through them have concluded that people estimate the length of angles more accurately. My findings contradict the given hypothesis. Now that I have finished investigating the given hypothesis, I will begin to investigate my own hypothesis. Hypothesis 2 Females estimate the length of lines and size of angles better than males The above hypothesis is a hypothesis of my own and is one which I will now begin to investigate. I will use the same method of comparing percentage errors as used in the previous investigation. First thoughts Without analysing the comparisons between the results given from the different sexes, its difficult to say weather or not females were more accurate, as at first glance, it is not obvious. Data analysis To be able to compare male and female estimates, I must first divide my sampled data into two sections, one section of male estimates and another section of female estimates. Earlier in my investigation I specifically selected 20 male data points and 20 female data points using Stratified random sampling, to eliminate bias. This is now useful to me as than there is an equal amount of female and male data points, so I will be able to use an analyse my original set of sampled data. I will now separate male and females guesses into two columns and compare the mean of the percentage errors. I will be able to mix line and angle percentage errors as I am comparing how females and males estimate lines and angles generally and not line and angles individually. Male Line and Angle percentage errors Line and Angle percentage errors (%) 1 11.11111 2 4.444444 3 6.666667 4 8.888889 5 11.11111 6 13.33333 7 15.55556 8 17.77778 9 20 10 22.22222 11 24.44444 12 26.66667 13 28.88889 14 31.11111 15 33.33333 16 35.55556 17 37.77778 18 40 19 42.22222 20 44.44444 21 16.66667 22 25 23 11.11111 24 38.88889 25 11.11111 26 16.66667 27 11.11111 28 2.777778 29 16.66667 30 5.555556 31 11.11111 32 2.777778 33 11.11111 34 25 35 25 36 25 37 38.88889 38 38.88889 39 108.3333 40 31.11111 ?=948.3333 To calculate the mean percentage error I first need to add up all the percentage errors. To do this, I will use the ? formula in excel, as used earlier. The number highlighted in green is the sums of the line and the angle percentage errors. To gain the mean of the percentage I need to divide them by 40, as this is the amount of percentage error data points. The product I am left with is 23.70833% this is the mean percentage error for male line and angle estimates. Female Line and Angle percentage errors Line and angle percentage errors (%) 1 22.22222 2 11.11111 3 44.44444 4 33.33333 5 122.2222 6 33.33333 7 11.11111 8 33.33333 9 11.11111 10 33.33333 11 22.22222 12 11.11111 13 11.11111 14 11.11111 15 55.55556 16 11.11111 17 11.11111 18 0 19 17.77778 20 77.77778 21 44.44444 22 19.44444 23 25 24 11.11111 25 94.44444 26 0 27 11.11111 28 11.11111 29 11.11111 30 25 31 2.777778 32 2.777778 33 11.11111 34 75 35 25 36 25 37 2.777778 38 25 39 25 40 25 26.41667 If I repeat the same process used for the male percentage errors, to obtain the mean of the female percentage errors, I am left with the product 26.41667%. This is the mean percentage error for line and angle percentage errors. From calculating the mean percentage errors of line and angle percentage errors, for both genders, I have found that males were more accurate at estimating the size angles and length of lines than females, and that this contradicts my hypothesis. To improve the reliability of my findings I will now investigate standard deviation. Standard deviation Standard deviation is useful to measure the spread of the data. Standard deviation gives a more detailed picture of the way in which data is dispersed around the mean, being the centre of distribution. If the difference between the standard deviation and the mean is large, the data is not consistent and is not typical of the mean. To work the standard deviation, I need to subtract the mean percentage error from each percentage error to create a set of deviations. Once I have done this I need to square each deviation to make a set of squared deviations. I can place this information in a table x (x-x) (x-x)à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ x = percentage error x = mean percentage error I then need to average the set of deviations, by finding the mean of the standard deviations. Once I have done this I will need to take the square root so that the answer is back to the original measure, in this case percentage. This can be represented by the formula V ?(x x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ n I will now use my male sample percentage error data, to formulate a table Standard deviation table of male percentage errors x (x-x) (x-x)à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 2.777778 -20.9306 438.08801 2.777778 -20.9306 438.08801 4.444444 -19.2639 371.0973 5.555556 -18.1528 329.5232 6.666667 -17.0417 290.41828 8.888889 -14.8194 219.61583 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 11.11111 -12.5972 158.68995 13.33333 -10.375 107.64063 15.55556 -8.15277 66.467659 16.66667 -7.04166 49.584976 16.66667 -7.04166 49.584976 16.66667 -7.04166 49.584976 17.77778 -5.93055 35.171423 20 -3.70833 13.751711 22.22222 -1.48611 2.2085229 24.44444 0.73611 0.5418579 25 1.29167 1.6684114 25 1.29167 1.6684114 25 1.29167 1.6684114 25 1.29167 1.6684114 26.66667 2.95834 8.7517756 28.88889 5.18056 26.838202 31.11111 7.40278 54.801152 31.11111 7.40278 54.801152 33.33333 9.625 92.640625 35.55556 11.84723 140.35686 37.77778 14.06945 197.94942 38.88889 15.18056 230.4494 38.88889 15.18056 230.4494 38.88889 15.18056 230.4494 40 16.29167 265.41851 42.22222 18.51389 342.76412 44.44444 20.73611 429.98626 108.3333 84.62497 7161.3855 13045.912 326.14781 18.059563 Once I had organized the data from smallest to largest in column x, I could calculate column 2(x-x) by subtracting the mean, which is 23.70833, from each percentage error. I then calculated column three (x-x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ by multiplying each data point in column two by power 2, by using the excel formula ^2. Calculating the Standard Deviation Once I had finished formulating the table, I was able to find the Standard Deviation. I need to use the formula V ?(x x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ n. So I firstly had to work out the sum of the (x-x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ column, the product was 13045.912. I then divided this number by 40, to find the mean of the data, as this is the number of data points and the product was 326.14781.The final calculation I had to make to conclude with the standard deviation was to square root the mean, as I needed to find the original unit of measure, in this case it was percentage. The standard deviation of the male line and angle estimates is 18.1% to 3.sf. Standard deviation table of female percentage errors x (x-x) (x-x)à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 0 -26.4167 697.84045 0 -26.4167 697.84045 2.777778 -23.6389 558.79721 2.777778 -23.6389 558.79721 2.777778 -23.6389 558.79721 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 11.11111 -15.3056 234.26017 17.77778 -8.63889 74.63042 19.44444 -6.97223 48.611991 22.22222 -4.19445 17.593411 22.22222 -4.19445 17.593411 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 25 -1.41667 2.0069539 33.33333 6.91666 47.840186 33.33333 6.91666 47.840186 33.33333 6.91666 47.840186 33.33333 6.91666 47.840186 44.44444 18.02777 325.00049 44.44444 18.02777 325.00049 55.55556 29.13889 849.07491 75 48.58333 2360.34 77.77778 51.36111 2637.9636 94.44444 68.02777 4627.7775 122.2222 95.80553 9178.6996 26785.15 669.62875 25.877186 Once I had organized the data from smallest to largest in column x, I could calculate column 2(x-x) by subtracting the mean, which is 26.41667 from each percentage error. I then calculated column three (x-x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ by multiplying each data point in column two by power 2, by using the excel formula ^2. Calculating the Standard Deviation Once I had finished formulating the table, I was able to find the Standard Deviation. I needed to use the formula V ?(x x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ n. So I firstly had to work out the sum of the (x-x) à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ column, the product was 13045.912. I then divided this number by 40, to find the mean of the data, as this is the number of data points and the product was 326.14781.The final calculation I had to make to conclude with the standard deviation was to square root the mean, as I needed to find the original unit of measure, in this case it was percentage. The standard deviation of the male line and angle estimates is 25.8% to 3.sf. Comparing data From investigating my hypothesis, I have found that through investigating the mean of the percentage errors for male and female estimates, males were more accurate. But when I investigated the percentage errors through standard deviation, I found that females were more consistent with estimating and that female estimates were more typical of the mean than male estimates. But this is irrelevant as the data still shows that males were more accurate as the standard deviation of the male estimates was 18.1% and the standard deviation of female estimates was 25.8%, which is a difference of 7.7%. My findings contradict my hypothesis and males were more accurate at estimating lengths of lines and size of angles. Evaluation I believe that I have investigated both hypotheses as much as I could have in the time I have been given. The conclusions I have come to through my findings were based upon the data pooled by my class. I believe that some of this data may have been unreliable due to errors etc. I believe that with a more extensive pool of data, my findings would have been more conclusive an indicative a true representation. I have reached the end of my investigation. If the time allocation was greater, I could have investigated another hypothesis such as Younger people estimate lines and angles better than older people.

Monday, October 21, 2019

5 Steps to Quitting the Right Way

5 Steps to Quitting the Right Way Sometimes it’s just time to part ways from a job that is no longer working out. It’s time for you to take your job to a nice dinner, and break the news gently: â€Å"It’s not you, it’s me.† (Okay, let’s be honest: it’s always â€Å"you.†) If you’ve just plain reached the end of your patience and/or have a shiny new job waiting for you, there are ways to exit gracefully so that you can move on to the next opportunity with no regrets. Determine whether you really want to quitIf you’re angry over a particular ongoing situation, or you find that your dread and anxiety about work are dragging down the rest of your daily life, think long and hard about what quitting would mean. If you don’t yet have another job lined up, are you financially able to support yourself while you hunt for another one? It can be very tempting to bolt when things aren’t going well at work, but make sure you’ve put a lot of thought into whether this is truly quit-worthy, and that your overall well-being is served by leaving the position.Figure out whether you can fix the problem firstAgain, impulse quitting can be a very appealing option. Ask yourself questions like, â€Å"Is this situation likely to resolve soon if I don’t quit?† and â€Å"Are there any steps I can take to fix the situation without drastic measures?† If possible, talk things over with your supervisor. Let him or her know that you’re not happy with the way things are going, and you’d like to find a way to resolve that. There may be options available that you’re not aware of in the moment, when everything seems awful.Give noticeIf quitting is indeed the way to go (or you’ve got a better opportunity lined up), make sure you give an appropriate amount of notice. In most cases, that’s about two weeks. Your company may have a different policy, though, so double check with your HR depar tment if possible. If you’re breaking the news to your boss in person, make sure you follow up the conversation with a professional email that outlines your resignation and your end date.Be ready to train your replacementYour departure could leave a bit of a vacuum for your colleagues, especially if you have crucial tasks and responsibilities that affect others. Work with your soon-to-be-former boss to determine what the needs are for the post-you workplace. That could mean showing other coworkers the ropes on particular processes, or even training your replacement if your company is able to line one up before you leave.Don’t burn bridgesThe most important part of all: be gracious on your way out the door, regardless of the circumstances. This is especially true if you’re staying in the same field. You never know who’s connected on LinkedIn, or who were interns together ages ago and still meet for monthly drinks. A little graciousness lets you leave your current situation (no matter how lousy) and enter your new one without baggage- because who needs that kind of negativity? Sometimes jobs just don’t work out, and it’s not worth risking damage to your professional reputation to go all scorched-earth on your current workplace.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing

How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing How To Rediscover The Joy Of Writing By Sharon Most people get into the writing business because they love to write. In fact, they cant imagine doing anything else. However, when you write for a living, you may sometimes feel as if youre writing by rote and as if the joy of writing has completely evaporated. Almost every freelance writer that I know has experienced this at least once. Its time to do something about it before the joy disappears completely. Here are some of the steps that I take. Sometimes it helps to step away from the computer. When you spend most of every day there, its no surprise that you might feel a bit stale from time to time. I find exercise very helpful in clearing my brain, so I go for a walk or if I really want to torture myself take a spin class. Reading has always been one of my favorite forms of relaxation. When youre trying to refresh your ideas, the trick is to read something completely different. When Im relaxing, I almost never read about mortgages or loans. Instead, I pick up a good biography or a trashy novel and lose myself in someone elses life. Its amazing how many good ideas you can get by doing that. The best writing appeals to people. If you work at home, you may not meet many people, but you can still find out what they think. Watch some daytime TV or get out there and talk to your friends. When you distract your brain from the subject at hand, then theres lots of room for ideas to flood in. Write for fun. For me, this is one way of recharging my batteries. Instead of working on an ebook or an article about property, I can experiment with a short story or a poem. Turning my thoughts in a different direction can flick a mental switch and get the creative juices flowing again. Take a challenge. Theres always a writing challenge going on urging you to talk about your successes, give writing tips, satirize a famous writer, write a piece of flash fiction or another form of writing. These give writers the chance to try something new. At worst, it makes a change. At best, writers will discover another form of writing that they love, and find the joy of writing again. These are some of the steps that have worked for me. I do have off days, but I still love what I do. What works for you when youre feeling burned out? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:35 Synonyms for â€Å"Look†Confusing "Passed" with "Past"How to Treat Names of Groups and Organizations

Saturday, October 19, 2019

FMLA this is a Human Resoures class Research Paper

FMLA this is a Human Resoures class - Research Paper Example However, if a company is a public agency, including all private and public schools, it must provide FMLA regardless of the number of employees. The FMLA allows eligible employees to take off up to 12 work weeks in any 12 month period to take care of a new child in the family whether by birth, adoption or by placement in foster care; to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition; or if the employee himself is unable to work because of a serious health condition (USDOL,n.d.). An employee can be eligible to FMLA if he is unable to perform his essential job function. The FMLA regulations guarantees time-off but it is up to the employer if he will pay the employee and provide benefits while he takes a leave. The continuous, intermittent and reduced schedules are the three different kinds of FMLA leave. The continuous leave is when an employee is absent for more than three consecutive business days and has been treated by a doctor. The in termittent leave is when an employee takes time off in separate blocks. It can either be in hourly, daily, or weekly increments. This type of leave is usually taken by an employee who undergoes ongoing treatment.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Nursing Article critique Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nursing Article critique - Lab Report Example Although, they have not mentioned anything related to time geographic location of the study which enhance the interest of the readers; still the mentioning of the type of intercourse, consensual and non-consensual, improves its strength. This article does not contain an abstract. As an abstract is summary of an article so it should cover all the important sections of a research article, like: background, the methods, findings, conclusion and implications. It is the quality of a good abstract that the main theme of the research carried out and the point of view of the researchers should be narrated in a coherent way so that the reader could clearly understand this summary. The authors provide a very comprehensive account on the introduction. They specifically discussed the issues related to the topic with reference to the US. To further strengthen the statements the authors have utilized various sources available. This article does include the section on background; this has been addressed in a short but comprehensive way. Here the authors discussed various terminologies in use by the US department of Justice and the criteria related to the event of a rape. The authors of this article have tried to address important aspects of the available evidence under the section on literature review.

Christian Marrige Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Christian Marrige - Term Paper Example entire blame on themselves for anything going wrong, thinking they could have done something to avoid it and it was their own shortcomings that led the event to take place. On the other hand, persons with character-disorder will put the blame on everyone and everything other than themselves, thinking that it is their environment that caused things to go wrong and that they had no part to play in it at all. On a personal level, neurotic personalities suffer from a sense of inferiority, which leads them to become over-achieving individuals, who try to control everything around them and often over-compensate in all aspects of their lives, as they believe that they can, rather they should, always do more. Character-disordered personalities, however, have a sense of powerlessness; they feel that they cannot control anything and that no matter what they do, it is actually factors outside themselves that cause things to happen the way they do. Thus, the neurotics are constantly harming themselves by their actions, while those with character-disorder are harming those around them: the former blaming themselves and being hard on themselves, and the latter blaming those around them and being hard on others. On a grander scale of things, neurotics cause exasperation in those around them, however, with a little bit of help from their loved ones they can overcome this habit, as they are always open to growth; keeping in mind their low self-esteem, they are more open to the ideas and thoughts of others. Character-disordered people, however, are not open to criticism at all; they never apologize for their behavior as nothing is ever their fault – they always have some outside force to blame. Thus, it is very hard for the neurotics to fall in love as they find fault in themselves, whereas the character-disordered personalities simply cannot love because of their passive aggressiveness as well as due to their deflection of blame on those around them. The most marked

Thursday, October 17, 2019

International Cooperation to Save Aral Sea Article

International Cooperation to Save Aral Sea - Article Example This has beena source of health problems among the residents (Circle of Blue | WaterNews ). As a response, the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon asks for an international cooperation, particulay involving the regional leaders of Central Asia, however this call has faced several oppositions especially to the proposed hydroelectric power plant in Tajikistan. Calls for regional and international cooperation to support environmental policies have never been easy; whether it is a climate change or other environmental issues. Culprits have never been kind enough to take responsibilities. Even in this case, Uzbekistan has not shown any sign of voluntary effort to save the sea. The United Nations should serve as the parent organization of all the countries and is just fitting to take the initiative. However, what we lack right now is the international environmental law that will cover such issues. Economists have also been in the pursuit of viable solution, particularly solutions that support the individual interest of the states. If we have such type of solution and strong environmental laws, international cooperation will be much more easier.

Organizational Behavior and Communication Essay

Organizational Behavior and Communication - Essay Example Some of the popular applications are; Google Maps which is an application to view maps of towns and cities along with satellite view, Google Chrome is a web browser produced by Google, Google Finance provides customized information regarding the stock prices and financial facts and figures of the companies, Google Translate is an application that can translate so many languages inter se along with the feature of translating whole web pages. Such additional services have made Google one of the biggest companies with most innovative web applications. The success of the organization can be traced to its organizational culture and values. The mission of the company is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful (Google, 2011). The philosophy of the company is clearly apparent from the mission statement of the company which is to provide right information to the people who seek for it. This mission and philosophy has driven the company to be in novative in designing its strategies, therefore the company has become a dynamic organization which keeps changing and expanding. This continuous change and innovation is keeping Google in the spotlight among the users. Innovation is apparent from every aspect of the organization. From the layout of the workplace to the organizational structure, everything represents innovation. Employees are free to communicate to anyone at any level of the organization because it is the belief of the organization that each employee is an important contributor to the success of the organization. Employees are provided an environment where they can work comfortably and playfully. There are a number of facilities like; gyms, gourmet cafes etc. for the employees (Google, 2011). One of the main reasons behind the success of the organization is its belief in its employees. Apart from working for the organization, each employee is allowed a specific number of hours from the normal work hours to utilize o n their individual projects. In this manner each employee puts his individual input to the innovation of the organization which is appreciated by the personnel at higher levels of the organization. Each employee is free to present his ideas to the higher levels of management. Therefore, it can be said that the culture of an organization plays an important role in the effectiveness of communication that

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

International Cooperation to Save Aral Sea Article

International Cooperation to Save Aral Sea - Article Example This has beena source of health problems among the residents (Circle of Blue | WaterNews ). As a response, the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon asks for an international cooperation, particulay involving the regional leaders of Central Asia, however this call has faced several oppositions especially to the proposed hydroelectric power plant in Tajikistan. Calls for regional and international cooperation to support environmental policies have never been easy; whether it is a climate change or other environmental issues. Culprits have never been kind enough to take responsibilities. Even in this case, Uzbekistan has not shown any sign of voluntary effort to save the sea. The United Nations should serve as the parent organization of all the countries and is just fitting to take the initiative. However, what we lack right now is the international environmental law that will cover such issues. Economists have also been in the pursuit of viable solution, particularly solutions that support the individual interest of the states. If we have such type of solution and strong environmental laws, international cooperation will be much more easier.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What are the features of the constructivist theory and its Assignment

What are the features of the constructivist theory and its applications - Assignment Example tainer† exists wherein the individual can seek to categorize the new and incoming information, the constructivist approach dictates that a container will be made which is suitable to house such information within the mind, worldview, and culture of the individual in question. Accordingly, as a means to provide a positive learning result, it is incumbent upon the educator to seek to build such a construct first prior to seeking to impart key elements of knowledge upon which a larger construct can be understood. An example of this would of course be the need for a teacher to adequately express and detail all points of vocabulary and understanding to an elementary school class prior to launching into a broad overview of a new means of understanding. Similarly, psychological constructivists are primarily interested in how people construct key internal elements of cognitive reasoning. In other words, psychological constructivists seek to answer the question of precisely how human construct different containers within which to house information that is oftentimes otherwise viewed as somewhat absolute. On the other hand, social constructivism, as the name implies, relies heavily on the means by which constructs are built as a result of the societal constraints, culture, and norms that are present within group dynamics. Accordingly, as the text states, on the extreme end of the spectrum there is what is known as radical constructivism. This particular type of constructivism is what can be termed as a type of relativism in which those that espouse such a view contend that there is no reality whatsoever other that what the individual establishes for themselves. Accordingly, the means by which any type of constructivism takes place lie s solely within the grasp of the individual who is creating the reality (construction) for themselves. These unique and differing layers of understanding the way in which human beings classify and categorize key information is

Jose Rizal Essay Example for Free

Jose Rizal Essay It is common knowledge that Dr. Jose Rizal is the Philippine National Hero who chose to fight the battle with his quills, paved the way for our independence and died doing so. However, it has always been fascinating to learn things that weren’t discussed on classrooms and lectures, to divulge facts that make a famous character seem like just the rest of us. So here are 10 fun facts that most Filipinos might not know about Rizal. 1.Jose â€Å"Pepe† Rizal was bullied as a kid. As a kid. Rizal was too small for his age and made him a target of Pedro’s bullying, insulting Pepe in front of the other students at the school of Maestro Justiniano Cruz. Equipped with his Uncle Miguel’s teachings about the art of wrestling, Rizal challenged Pedro to a fistfight. Rizal won and became popular as he proved himself a worthy opponent. 2.Jose Rizal wrote his first poem at the age of 8. Entitled â€Å"Sa Aking Mga Kababata† [To My Fellow Youth]. And it depicts one’s fervent love for his native language and asking his own generation to embrace it like we all should. 3.Rizal was a Hyperpolyglot. He mastered 22 languages: Filipino, Ilokano, Bisayan, Subanon, Latin, Spanish, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Malay, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Dutch, Catalan, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Portugese, Swedish and Russian. 4.Rizal was addressed by his European lover as the â€Å"little bad boy†. It is not a secret that Jose Rizal had his way with women. And on the series of letters that were discovered to be love messages for Rizal, a Belgian woman named Suzanne wrote : â€Å"There will never be any home in which you are so loved as that in Brussels. So, you little bad boy, hurry back.† Now, who can resist giggling on this information? 5.He was accepted as one of the few Renaissance man in the world. A man who had broad intellectual interest. He was an anthropologist, ethnologist, ophthalmologist, novelist, sociologist, educator, economist, architect, engineer, sculptor, painter, playwright, historian, journalist, farmer, dramatist, martial artist, and a cartographer, among other things. 6.Rizal liked playing the lottery. And he won one-third of the grand prize of Php 18,000.00 with ticket number 9736. He gave a portion to his father, a friend in Hong Kong and he spent the rest buying agricultural lands in Talisay. 7.Rizal jovially pinched his students who can’t answer his queries. During his exile in Dapitan, he was able to establish a school, he had 21 pupils who were never asked to pay for tuition but was required by Rizal to work for the community. 8.Rizal is believed to be the reincarnation of Jesus Christ. There is a religious sect in Calamba Laguna, â€Å"Rizalista†, used to be known as â€Å"Iglesia ng Watawat ng Lahi† [Banner of the Race Church]. They combine religion and patriotism and believe that the execution in Bagumbayan was just a phase that he had to endure to be in the presence of God. They also believe that Rizal is still alive and lives deep in the forest of Mount Makiling. 9.Rizal was rumored to be the father of Adolf Hitler. Because of his famed reputation as a Casanova, it was believed that he was involved with a beautiful woman living somewhere in the border of Germany and Austria. Funny how Filipino imagination wanders. 10.Moments before his death, Rizal was reported to remain in a tranquil state. Before his execution, Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo took his vital signs and was surprised to confirm that his pulse rate was normal. Rizal was indeed ready and unafraid of his fate.

Monday, October 14, 2019

A Personal Reflection Of Developmental Life

A Personal Reflection Of Developmental Life Numerous developmental theories exist today that attempt to explain cognitive and physical changes in the body as we grow older. Some are vague and finite, while others go into extreme detail. Some of the leading psychologists relative to these theories are Jean Piaget (Beilin, 1992) with his cognitive developmental theory, Erik Erikson (Gross, 1987), who developed his psychosocial developmental theory, and Lawrence Kohlberg (Guthrie, 1984), with his moral development theory. It has taken many years for these scholars, as well as intelligent students to polish and critique these developmental theories. Kohlbergs moral developmental theory best accounts for my moral, ethical, and personal development as well as potentially playing a large role in my future development as a senior adult. I respect them all because they all are true in their own way. I just happen to have one theory which applies to me more than the others. As a child, I can remember being cognizant about the direct repercussions of my actions on myself as well as other children. Out of all the conspicuous developmental theories that are commonplace today, I believe that, as Kohlberg stated, it is like saying, The last time I did that I got spanked so I will not do it again (Kohlberg, 1974). Thats exactly the mentality I developed after wrongdoing. In other words, a behavior which is thought to be ethically incorrect usually results in the culprit being punished, driving childrens moral choices. The reflection in terms of how and why Kohlbergs portions of stage one of his theory relates to my childhood is because even though I was quite obsequious, I was surrounded by people who held what they thought were universal moral/ethical developments; these people had general principles to follow that would be deemed appropriate by the majority of citizens, as well as being able to have the moral fortitude to give instead of taking. I admit that I was quite selfish at this early age. Kohlberg devised that his theory was composed primarily of three major levels of development. These primary levels are known as pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. In all, there are six sub-stages that are underneath his primary levels in regards to his moral developmental theory. I can attest that I judged moral acts based on their repercussions. When I was young, I would not steal food from drug stores because I knew if I got caught, they were not going to treat me well in jail. The main point with respect to Kohlberg and my childhood is that I did not grasp what it was to have broadly acquiesced moral values. This is what Kohlberg argued in his first stage of the preconventional level of development. Furthermore in stage two of the preconventional level, which is defined by the self-driven person, proclaims whats in it for me, where correct behavior is based on whatever is in the individuals best interest (Kohlberg, 1974). A young child in the preconventional moral stage has not yet acquired or internally digested the conventions of society with respect to what is right or wrong. Instead, they concentrate on their convergence on the transcendent repercussions that specific states of affairs may bring to them (Kohlberg, 1971). This stage of development concurs with my lifestyle as a youngster. I was selfish and I thought I was completely free from any wrongdoing because I was a child. I failed to develop any rational moral belief system at this point in my life. The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of some adolescents and a great deal of adults. In the general consensus, people who justify their actions in a conventional way arbitrate the morality of behaviors by discerning them against societys general views and ethically-guided behaviors. Persons in this stage of development either approve or decline from other individuals as it pertains to societys accordance with the conceived role. As Kohlberg put it, they try to be a good boy or a good girl so that they can meet the expectations of society having apprehended the knowledge that there is intricate value in so doing (Kohlberg, 1973). During this broad conventional stage of Kohlbergs theory, one must note that conventional morality is dependent by an acceptance of societys assemblage related to what are right and or wrong. In the fourth stagein the same level as the thirdit is the drive for authority, social order, and obedience that defines its presuppositions. In the fourth stage, it is absolutely essential to adhere to laws, dictums, and social conveyances due to the fact that they are vital in creating a stable and functional society. I can 100% relate to Kohlbergs fourth stage when I was an adult. For example, I ended up picking up rank in the military and was in charge of hundreds of Marines that I was responsible for in every way. It was essential to obey what you were told to accomplish by your supervisor. If you did not finish by the time he or she returned, you can go to jail, lose your money, lose your rank, and even lose your house. The Marines take disobedience to its laws very seriously. Thus, Kohlbergs theory is at work here during this phase of my life because I was dedicated to adhering to the rules that governed me, because it was my duty to protect the U.S. foreign and domestically. With respect to stage five of Kohlbergs theory, my life as I got older and travelled more often became committed to the social contract driven force. That is, I held the worldview and made myself respect that every culture-also known as cultural relativism-has its different views on what is acceptable in society and what is not. I had to learn to respect that because I was used to my own rules and regulations. But when my units in the military deployed overseas, we were under the jurisdiction of foreign governments. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. For example, in the United States, prostitution is not something very good to proclaim as a job, and is illegal in every state except for one. This is in direct contrast to other countries, where sex is actually a business industry and is widely promoted. People do it so they can make money and live. It was hard to accept at first, but once my selfishness went away and my mind widened, my morals changed to universal ones, as I will discuss lastly in stage six in Kohlbergs post-conventional stage. After I served in the military, learned to obey and respect other cultures, along with my travelling experiences, I started to finally develop my own universal morals. This I believe started me in stage six of Kohlbergs theory. For example, I believe that murder, adultery in any case, preemptive violence and war, and saying the Lords name in vain are all immoral and should be shunned. This is a mirrored reflection of Kohlbergs, in particular stage six, of his moral development theory. It pos tulates that moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Kohlberg and his peers developed the just community schools approach towards promoting moral development (Power, Higgins, Kohlberg, 1989). I thought that anyone in society would think it would be morally right because stealing does not always have negative connotations. This goes along with Kohlbergs conventional stage of development. I tended to weigh the morality of things based on society. For example, I used to believe war was the right thing to do as a preemptive measure. But when I became an adult, my beliefs changed drastically and were more coagulated. I started becoming more diplomatic and resolving issues by negotiations, not by combat or any other physical altercations. In Kohlbergs sixth stage, I believe that was the turning point to how I judge people and other things and situations. Now I will address how Kohlbergs moral theory applies to my current lifestyle as well as to contemporary world affairs. Reaching such a high stage was not noticeable to me for a long time, and it took a lot of hard work to reach it, but then I started giving large thoughts empathetic to lots of individuals. For example, I saw massive amounts of impoverished people in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. There should be no poor individuals in the world; there should be a more rigid attempt to completely eradicate HIV. But the results still have not satisfied me. Efforts to tame the HIV epidemic have only been haphazard (Kaiser, 2010). The key methods are using condoms or teaching individuals how to maintain abstinence. Recently the U.S. cut the condom program before President Bush left office, which was a death sentence to millions of Africans who were participating in the program. The former First Lady Laura Bush made an underrated attempt, which promoted the use of condoms and ha nded them out in African regions, which people thought was evolutionary. However, she did not advocate for abstinence as much as she could have (Kaiser, 2010). Overall, I feel that such differential perspectives among cultures should be respected as unique to each person, group, tribe, culture, or community. I learned this after travelling overseas, interacting with differential people from diverse cultures, and seeing what really goes on in the world. I thought that every country loved America and that we were viewed as the benevolent country that came to the worlds aid when it needed us. I thought that most, if not all countries, wanted freedom, liberty, and justice as a lot of people incorrectly thinks. When I was in Russia, many citizens were angered by our presence as Americans and hated the idea of complete freedom and looked at us Americans like we were the bad people. One Russian, out-of-the-blue, came up to me and said, Iraqà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦BIG MISTAKE. I did not understand the anti-American sentiment. This is in no way a political statement nor does it reflect my beliefs, I just want the reader to be aware of how other cultures view the U.S. and its effect on moral systems. This point aforementioned regarding the Russians is directly consistent with what Kohlberg was saying regarding how society has different views. It is called cultural relativism. Speaking in terms of the future, I would like to work for the FBI and catch criminals, whether they are bank robbers, fraudulent vices, computer hackers, or any criminal of any kind. Because of my developed and polished moral and ethical views, thanks to Kohlberg, I also plan to increase my voluntary practices with community organizations like Habitat for Humanity, the Peace Corps and AmeriCorps. One of my academic goals is to graduate with honors and reach graduate studies. I am determined to succeed and at that I especially mean academically. I also want to get in better shape so Ill feel better. After delving into Kohlbergs moral development theory and also my experience through an adult, I believe that his theory best explains my moral/ethical development, adherence to laws and engage in obedience, and countless other tidbits. Kohlbergs moral developmental theory best accounts for my moral, ethical, and personal developments as well as potentially playing a large role in my future development as a senior adult. It also explains the rationale for punishment administered to me in the past, being of self-interest, and conjuring my own universal ethical principles. Although a lot of the developmental theories are well supported and studied, I believe that relative to my own life that none of them have the clout and or efficacy in its developmental explication that Kohlbergs theory has. Ultimately, I found Kohlbergs theory to be the best one that explains historical, contemporary, and very likely my future endeavors as well as I still mature as an adult. After rigorous delving into Kohlbergs material, I am confident that his moral theory is extremely accurate and could be used as a guide to help in developing individuals.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Essay -- Papers

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, as a product of its culturally inscribed author, presents a confused Unitarian world view consistent with that of the Romantic Movement of its time. It attempts to exemplify this view within an unpredictable and often mysterious universe, and by rebuking the hegemonic ideologies held by the text’s cultural antagonists, seeks to grant the awareness of an often unreasonable world populated by its reader’s passionate persona. Applying a world-context centred reading to Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s, The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere, demands the awareness of the Neo-Classical era’s hegemonic position over the newly flourishing Romantic Movement of late eighteenth century Europe. Inherent in this awareness is the philosophical concern in The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere, with the issue of Neo-Classic determinism versus Romantic free will. These two philosophical perspectives, unique to their own era, are locked in contention throughout the poem and therefore struggle for dominance; as determined by the reader of the text. A resistant reading of The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere explores the concept of determinism, which as an ideology is diametrically opposed to Coleridge’s own beliefs in passionate action and free will; beliefs privileged by the author’s subscription to the Romantic Movement during the text’s construction. Due to its unique time of construction, The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere itself represents a sense of philosophical uncertainty. Its ideologies, as inspired by a pioneer of the Romantic Movement, are inevitably influenced by the author’s own Neo-Classical background. As a culturally inscribed composer of the text, the idealistically passion... ...ibuting factor to Southey’s inability to decode the poem’s meaning, lay in the style with which he read it, a style bestowed upon him by his cultural background. Such a background rigidly opposed alternate methods of experiencing poetry, such as trying to feel it rather than to understand it. In such a way, The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere represented a paradigm shift in the way poetry was interpreted; a dynamically different form of experience to what was traditionally accepted. Through this shift, and supported by his culture-breaking contemporaries, Coleridge in his writing of The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere was proposing a new means of experiencing and interpreting the universe; a new cultural perspective. The depth of this perspective that is available to the reader is determined by what the reader, as a culturally inscribed individual, brings to the text.

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Feminist Struggle Portrayed in Brief History Of The Horse Essay

The Feminist Struggle Portrayed in Brief History Of The Horse  Ã‚   Lorna Crozier's poem, "A Brief History Of The Horse", offers many different interpretations. However, the structure of the poem breaks down into three stages: past, present, and future. By examining the archetypes within the poem, it can be suggested that the horse stands to represent the feminist struggle, the ongoing battle for women to have an equal place in society. In explicating "A Brief History Of The Horse," it is of primary importance to examine the logopoeia (thought level) of the poem. The archetype of the horse suggests the poem's feminist aspect. To elucidate, the horse, as a Jungian archetype, represents motherhood and the magic side of man. What Jung refers to as the "`mother withing all of us,' or intuitiveness, and lies in the subconscious"(Cirlot, 151). In Crozier's poem, reference to the subconscious is quite apparent in the first stanza or stage; the horse grazes in "pastures of sleep." A grazing horse is also symbolic of freedom and peace (Oderr, 69); however, this freedom can only be obtained in sleep. The mother figure is also represented by the fact that the soldiers are within the horse. They are in the belly of the horse: "the soldiers feel the sway of the horse's belly as she races night across the meadows"(260). This implies the notion of a fetus in a womb. However, the men (soldiers) are not aware of the outside world of the horse, believing that they are in "a hold of a ship that smells of grass and forgetfulness"(260). Thus, the notion that the horse is grazing in a pasture of green grass (peace), yet the men(soldiers) are unable to see the truth. They are unaware of what problems the horse is actually faced with. The soldier... ...ermore, regardless of how much the horse is repressed it will eventually do what it wants to do. It doesn't matter what label is placed on the feminist struggle, it is inevitable that women will have a place equal in society to men. The horse will eventually graze "calmly in the meadow", and there will be a time when men and women are equal. In conclusion, the poem moves from the basic history or repression of the horse to the future outlook. The horse stands as an archetype for the mother, the feminist struggle. Therefore, the poem becomes a history of the feminist struggle, from being born of ancient times, through the ignorance of current times and eventually it will come to rest. Without a doubt, women will eventually have an equal place in society. The poet is quite adamant that females will become equal to men. The feminist movement cannot be suppressed.